Economy overview: The government of Zimbabwe is forced to solve the most diverse, and at the same time very complex, economic problems that stand in the way of the country’s further movement towards a market economy. For example, participation in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has already deprived the country of several hundred million dollars. Much-needed financial assistance from the IMF is being delayed, in part because Zimbabwe is failing to meet its budgetary commitments. Inflation rose from 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999 and 60% in 2000. Large budget deficits and AIDS continue to weaken the economy; Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of AIDS in the world. GDP per capita, twice the average for poorer sub-Saharan countries, is unlikely to improve any time soon. See topb2bwebsites.com to know more about Zimbabwe in 2004.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $28.2 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: -6.1% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity – $2,500 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 28%; industry: 32%; services: 40% (1997 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 60% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 1.8%; by the top 10% of families: 46.9% (1990).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 60% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 5.5 million people (2000 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10% (1996 est.).
Unemployment rate: 50% (2000 est.).
Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion; expenditures: $2.9 billion, including $279 million in capital expenditures (FY96-97 est.).
Spheres of the economy: mining (mining of coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, other metal and non-metal ores), production of steel, cement, chemicals, fertilizers, clothing and footwear, food products, drinks.
Growth in industrial production: no data available.
Electricity generation: 5.78 billion kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 69.98%; hydropower: 30.02%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 6.939 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 1.564 billion kWh (1999)
Agricultural products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugar cane, peanuts; livestock, sheep, goats, pigs.
Exports: $1.8 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: tobacco products 29%, gold 7%, ferroalloys 7%, cotton 5% (1999 est.).
Export partners: South Africa 10%, UK 9%, Malawi 8%, Botswana 8%, Japan 7% (1999 est.).
Imports: $1.3 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import articles: machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactured goods 18%, chemicals 17%, various fuels 14% (1999 est.).
Import partners: South Africa 46%, UK 6%, China 4%, Germany 4%, US 3% (1999 est.).
External debt: $4.1 billion (2000) Economic aid recipient: $200 million (2000 est.).
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Zimbabwean dollar.
Currency code: ZWD.
Exchange rate: ZWD/USD – 54.9451 (January 2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142 (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906 (1997), 9.9206 (1996).
Fiscal year: July 1-June 30.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 212,000 (and about 20,000 more landlines connected wirelessly to a local loop) (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 70,000 (1999).
Phone system: the system was once one of the best in Africa, but today suffers from insufficient maintenance; more than 100,000 connection orders remain unfulfilled, although the same number of installed lines are not used; domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, terrestrial links, radiotelephone stations, local wireless loop, and a significant cellular network; Internet available in Harare; it is planned to provide access to the Internet to all major cities and a number of smaller settlements; international: satellite ground stations – 2 Intelsat; two international digital communication stations (in Harare and Gweru).
Broadcast stations: AM -7, FM -20 (and 17 repeaters), shortwave – 1 (1998).
Radio receivers: 1.14 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 16 (1997).
TVs: 370,000 (1997).
Internet country code: zw
Internet service providers: 6 (2000).
Number of users: 30,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total length: 2,759 km (1995); narrow gauge: 2,759 km (1.067 m gauge; 313 km electrified; 42 km dual gauge) (1995 est.).
Roads: total length: 18,338 km; coated: 8,692 km; unpaved: 9,646 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: The Masoe and Zambezi rivers are used to transport chrome ore from Harare to Mozambique.
Pipelines: for oil products – 212 km.
Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba.
Airports: 455 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 18; over 3,047 m: 3; from 2438 to 3047 m:2; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4; 914 to 1523 m: 9 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 437; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4; from 914 to 1523 m:209; less than 914 m: 224 (2000 est.).
Military branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Zimbabwe Air Force, Republican Police of Zimbabwe (includes support police unit and paramilitary police).
Total military manpower: male 15 to 49: 2,996,631 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 1,860,167 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year:
Military spending in dollar terms: $127 million (FY99-2000).
Military spending as part of GDP: 3.1% (FY99-2000)
International Issues International Disputes:
Illicit Drugs: An important transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, methaqualone and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European drug markets.