Chad [also Tscha ː t], republic in Central Africa. The interior is located in the Sahara desert, in the Sahel and in the greater Sudan landscape, inhabited by a large number of ethnic groups, including in the north and in the center Sudanese Arabs and other Islamic groups (together around 40% of the population). Agriculture is only possible in the south. In addition to cotton cultivation, cattle breeding is important; Industry is hardly developed.
History: Before the European invasion, the Chad Basin belonged to the old Islamic empires Bagirmi (15th – 19th centuries), Kanem-Bornu (8th – 14th centuries as Kanem, Islamized in the 11th century; 14th – 19th centuries as Bornu, heyday in the 16th century) and Wadai (17th to early 20th century). In 1900, Chad became a French colonial area, and in 1960 it became independent.
Ounianga Lake District (World Heritage)
The 18 salt and fresh water lakes in the Ennedi region in the Sahara are the remains of the old Lake Chad, which dates from 9500 to 4500 BC. The Chad Basin filled.
Ounianga Lakeland: Facts
|Site with 18 connected lakes in two groups in the Sahara desert in northern Chad over an area of 680 km²; steady supply of groundwater (enriched in the Holocene 11,000 years ago) beyond the extent of evaporation, partly slowed down by reed mats on the water from the huge reed forests on the bank; some lakes with high salinity, only algae and microorganisms present there; Remains of a huge lake from 10,000 years ago; Occurrence of a wide variety of water birds and waders
|Ounianga Kebir, Ennedi Region, Northern Chad
|Unique natural phenomenon of a system of fresh water lakes in a dry desert environment; extraordinary landscape with outstanding beauty of colors and shapes
The Ennedi massif (World Heritage)
The Ennedi massif is located in the central Sahara in the northeast of the Republic of Chad. The sandstone plateau with its peaks up to 1450 meters high is known for its spectacular natural beauties and rich in prehistoric rock art
The Ennedi massif: facts
|Natural and cultural landscape of the Ennedi massif
|Natural and cultural monument:
|approx. 40,000 km² sandstone complex with wind-cut rock formations, including the Aloba Arch, one of the largest rock arches on earth, and deep canyons (Guelta d’Archeï in the Fada Archeï wildlife reserve); numerous rock niches and rock overhangs (abris) with rock art from the Neolithic Age, including the »Cave of the Flying Horses«
|southeast of the Tibesti; near the lake landscape of Ounianga
|extraordinary interplay of landscape, flora and fauna in the middle of the Sahara; The rock carvings are an important archaeological source because of their number, their temporal continuity and their state of preservation
According to a2zcamerablog.com, the mountain range is one of the most isolated regions in the Sahara. Over time, erosion created a mostly dry landscape with huge gorges, pillars, arches and bridges. In the valleys (canyons), which are up to 120 meters deep, there is enough moisture to allow rich vegetation. Monkeys, antelopes and birds, among others, live in a confined space. Between the towering rock walls lie Gueltas, small ponds and lakes that are fed from underground springs. They are witnesses of once blooming landscapes, when the humid climate still prevailed in this region.
The 4000 to 6000 year old rock drawings (petroglyphs) in the rock niches and overhangs (abris) on the western edge of the Ennedi also tell of fertile times. They testify to the long history of settlement in this region. Above all, wild animals and domestic animals are shown, mostly cattle and often together with people. More recent paintings show armored horses and riders as we know them from the historical empires in Sudan. Today the Ennedi massif is home to a few thousand Tubu, who mainly live from the caravan trade as camel nomads.