Economy overview: Uzbekistan is an arid, continental country, 10% of whose territory is intensively cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated villages. Uzbekistan is now the world’s third largest exporter of cotton, a major supplier of gold and natural gas, and has a regional chemical and engineering industry. After gaining independence in December 1991, the government sought to maintain a Soviet-style planned economic system with subsidies and tight control over production and pricing. However, faced with high inflation, the government began reforms in mid-1994, pursuing a tighter monetary policy, privatization, slightly reducing the state’s role in the economy, and improving conditions for foreign investors. The state retains its dominant influence in the economy, and the reforms have not yet led to badly needed structural changes. In late 1996, the IMF temporarily suspended a $185 million local currency stability credit line due to the government’s failure to meet the terms of the fund. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian crises by tightening export and foreign exchange controls in its already very closed economy. An economic policy that scares off foreign investors is a major factor in the stagnation of the economy. Rising public debt, inflation, and an unfavorable business climate meant that growth in 2000 was sluggish. Some improvement is forecast for 2001. An economic policy that scares off foreign investors is a major factor in the stagnation of the economy. Rising public debt, inflation, and an unfavorable business climate meant that growth in 2000 was sluggish. Some improvement is forecast for 2001. See topb2bwebsites.com to know more about Uzbekistan in 2004.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $60 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 2.1% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $2,400 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 28%; industry: 21%; services: 51% (1999 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 3.1%; by the top 10% of families: 25.2% (1993).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 40% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 11.9 million people (1998 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36% (1995).
Unemployment rate: 10%, also 20% part-time (1999 est.).
Budget: revenues: $4 billion; expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (1999 est.).
Spheres of economy: textile, food industry, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, natural gas production.
Growth in industrial production: 6.4% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 42.87 billion kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 86.4%; hydropower: 13.6%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 43.455 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 3.92 billion kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 7.5 billion kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, cereals, livestock.
Exports: $2.9 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, automobiles.
Export partners: Russia 13%, Switzerland 10%, UK 10%, Belgium 3%, Kazakhstan 4%, Tajikistan 4% (1999).
Imports: $2.6 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import articles: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs.
Import partners: Russia 14%, South Korea 14%, Germany 11%, USA 8%, Turkey 4%, Kazakhstan 4% (1999).
External debt: $3.3 billion (1999 est.) Economic aid recipient: $276.6 million (1995)
Donor of economic assistance:
Currency: Uzbek sum.
Currency code: UZS.
Exchange rate: UZS/USD – 325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997), 41.1 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 1.98 million (1999).
Mobile cell phones: 26,000 (1998).
Phone system: outdated, unsatisfactory, in need of serious modernization; internal: the internal telephone system is being expanded and improved technologically (especially in Tashkent and Samarkand) under contracts with well-known companies in the developed countries of the world; by 1998, 6 cellular communication networks were put into operation (4 – GSM standard, 1 – D-AMPS standard, 1 – AMPS standard); international: terrestrial or microwave communication with the CIS and other countries (exit through Moscow), after connecting the Uzbek line to the trans-Eurasian fiber optic cable, Uzbekistan will become independent from Russia in relation to communication with other states; Inmarsat also provides international communication, but it is too expensive; satellite earth stations – no data (1998).
Broadcast stations: AM – 20, FM -7, shortwave – 10 (1998).
Radio receivers: 10.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 4 (and 2 repeaters that broadcast Russian, Kazakh, Tajik and Kyrgyz programs) (1997).
Televisions: 6.4 million (1997)
Internet country code: uz
Internet providers: 42 (2000).
Number of users: 7,500 (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 3,380 km public, excluding industrial lines; broad gauge: 3,380 km (1.520 m gauge) (300 km electrified) (1993).
Roads: total: 81,600 km; paved: 71,237 km (these roads are considered to be paved, some are paved and others are gravel and can be used in all weather conditions); unpaved: 10,363 km (dirt roads, unusable in rainy weather) (1996 est.).
Waterways: 1,100 (1990).
Pipelines: for crude oil – 250 km; for oil products – 40 km; for natural gas – 810 km (1992).
Ports and harbours: Termez (on the Amudarya river).
Airports: 267 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 10; over 3,047 m: 3; from 2438 to 3047 m: 5; up to 914 m: 2 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 257; over 3,047 m: 3; from 2438 to 3047 m: 8; from 1524 to 2437 m:11; from 914 to 1523 m:13; less than 914 m: 222 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: army, air force and air defense, security forces (internal and border troops), national guard.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 6,550,587 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 5,318,418 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 274,602 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $200 million (1997)
Military spending as part of GDP: 2% (1997).
International issues International disputes: no.
Illicit drugs: limited illegal cultivation of hemp and a small amount of opium poppy (mostly for domestic consumption), almost completely defeated by an effective government program; the country is increasingly being used as a transit point for illegal drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe and acetic anhydride to Afghanistan.