The former trading centers of Samarkand , Khiva and Bukhara are lined up along the old Silk Road. Wall paintings and stucco work from the 5th to 8th centuries are examples of Sogdian art from pre-Islamic times, while richly decorated mosques, mausoleums and madrasas from the 9th to 17th centuries present evidence of Islamic art. In the arts and crafts, jewelry making, embroidery, carpet and silk weaving developed into high bloom.
The Sogdian language was originally used in literature. The Uzbek national poet Nevai wrote the verse epic “Chamsa” in the Jagatai language in the 15th century, from which the Uzbek language developed (Uzbek language and literature). At the beginning of the 20th century, Russian culture became increasingly influential in Uzbekistan. H. Niyoziy wrote socially critical dramas, Ajbek wrote novels in the style of socialist realism. The satirical youth novel “Shum Bola” (German: Der Schelm, 2014) by Gafur Gulom (* 1903, † 1966) about the adventures of a fourteen-year-old boy achieved international fame.
According to ask4beauty.com, the development of the film began in 1925 with the opening of the first film studio in Tashkent. In 1946 the film “Nasreddin’s Adventure” by Nabi Ganjew (* 1904, † 1952) was released. The film »Bread from Tashkent« (1968) by Schuchrat Abbassow (* 1931, † 2018) about hunger in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s received international attention. Saodat Ismailowa (* 1981) presented the women’s film “Chilla – 40 Days of Silence” at the 2014 Berlinale.
The melodies of traditional Uzbek music follow the maqamen in structure. This old music flourished in Bukhara in the 18th century. Singers, instrumentalists and composers were usually men. A variant with women’s songs was created in the Fergana Basin and in Tashkent. The dominant musical instruments of traditional music are the long-necked lute and the drums. Musical performances play a major role on celebratory occasions such as weddings and circumcision of boys. The biggest festival in Uzbekistan is the New Year festival Nauroz, which is celebrated in spring. The Uzbek dance Lazgi comes from the Choresm region near the Aral Sea. Women and men in traditional clothing move their whole bodies vigorously, make hands, fingers and shoulders tremble and imitate everyday activities in the process.
In the last few decades, oriental pop music (ethno pop) has found many followers. The musician, poet and actor Sherali Dschurajew (* 1947) was a very popular artist in the 1980s and 1990s. From 2002 the censorship banned the publication of his works on radio and television. The singer Yulduz Usmanova (* 1963) sings her songs in several Central Asian languages as well as in Russian and Turkish. In 1996 and 2008 she was temporarily expelled from Uzbekistan because of the song lyrics that were critical of the regime. The folk band Yalla use traditional and modern musical instruments and regularly go on international tours.
In sport, soccer, boxing and wrestling are among the most popular sports. Winter sports play a major role in the mountains near Tashkent. The martial art Kurasch, which combines elements of wrestling and wrestling, is considered the Uzbek national sport. Equestrian sport also looks back on a long tradition. At the equestrian games Kupkari, two teams fight over a dead goat.
World Heritage Sites in Uzbekistan
World Heritage Sites (K) and World Natural Heritage (N)
- Old town » Itschan-Kala « of Khiva (K; 1990)
- Old City of Bukhara (K; 1993)
- Old town of Shachrisabs (K; 2000)
- Samarkand (K; 2001)
- Western part of the Tian Shan (N; 2016)
Old town of Shachrisabs (World Heritage)
Shachrisabs, “green city”, is the birthplace of the Asian conqueror Timur. It experienced its heyday under his rule in the 15th century. The old town is a gem of medieval Islamic architecture.
Shakhrisab Old Town: Facts
|Official title:||Historic center of Shakhrisabs|
|Cultural monument:||“Green City”, birthplace of the legendary Mongol ruler Timur (1336-1405); Old town with numerous monuments, especially from the heyday under the rule of Timur in the 15th century.|
|Meaning:||Unique testimony to a centuries-old history|
Samarkand (World Heritage)
The 7th century BC Founded in the 4th century BC, the city was an important trading hub due to its location on the Silk Road, which developed into an economic and religious-cultural intersection of world cultures. Numerous architectural monuments date from the 14th century, such as the Bibi Chanym Mosque and the Registan Square with its adjoining buildings.
|Official title:||Samarkand as the “intersection of world cultures”|
|Cultural monument:||One of the oldest cities in the world; in the 7th century BC Founded; located on the “Great Silk Road”, the connection between the countries of Asia and the Mediterranean on trade routes; former religious and scientific center of the ancient oriental cultures and hub of world cultures; in the 14th century world fame as the capital of the vast Asiatic empire of the Mongolian Tamerlane; Buildings include the Bibi-Chanum Mosque (1399-1404; partly destroyed), once the largest and most beautiful mosque in the Orient and the main square of old Samarkand, the Gur-Emir mausoleum (completed in 1404/05, built as a burial place for the Timurids; including graves by Timur and Ulug Beg) as well as two other old mausoleums, at the central Registanplatz Ulug-Beg-Medrese (1417-1420), Schir-Dor-Medrese (1619-1636) and Tillja-Kari-Medrese (164660),|
|Meaning:||Unique masterpieces that set the style of Islamic architecture|