Economy overview: Turkmenistan is a predominantly desert country with nomadic pastoralism (cattle), intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and vast resources of gas (fifth in the world in terms of reserves) and oil. Half of the irrigated land is occupied by cotton, of which the country is the tenth largest producer in the world. Up until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan experienced less economic turmoil than other former Soviet republics due to high oil and gas prices, which led to a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia’s refusal to export Turkmen gas to the Western market, where supplies are paid in hard currency, and the growing debts of its main consumers among the countries of the former USSR led to a sharp drop in industrial production and the emergence of some budget deficit. With an authoritarian Transformed from a communist regime and a clan-based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken an overly cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to fuel a generally inefficient economy. Privatization is carried out on a limited scale. In 1998-2000 Turkmenistan suffered from a lack of capacity to transport gas for export and the need for high external debt repayments. At the same time, overall export earnings have increased due to high oil and gas prices. Prospects for the near future are bleak due to mass poverty and the heavy pressure of external debt. IMF assistance seems necessary, but the government is not yet ready to accept its terms. See topb2bwebsites.com to know more about Turkmenistan in 2004.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $19.6 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 16% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $4,300 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 25%; industry: 43%; services: 32% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 58% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.6%; by the top 10% of families: 31.7% (1998).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 14% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 2.34 million people (1996).
Employment structure: agriculture 44%, industry 19%, services 37% (1996).
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: revenues: $588.6 million; expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures – NA (1999 est.).
Spheres of economy: extraction of natural gas, oil, oil refining, production of textiles, food products.
Growth in industrial production: 18% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 8.371 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 99.94%; hydropower: 0.06%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 4.785 billion kWh (1999)
Export of electricity: 4.1 billion kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 1.1 billion kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: cotton, grain; livestock.
Exports: $2.4 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: gas 33%, oil 30%, cotton 18%, textiles 8% (1999).
Export partners: Ukraine, Iran, Turkey, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan.
Imports: $1.65 billion (s.i.f., 2000 est.)
Import items: machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999).
Import partners: Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Germany, USA, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan.
External debt: $2.5 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $27.2 million (1995)
Donor of economic aid:
Currency: Turkmen manat.
Currency code: ТММ.
Exchange rate: TMM/USD – 5200 (January 2001), 5200 (January 2000), 5350 (January 1999), 4070 (January 1997), 2400 (January 1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 363,000 (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 4,300 (1998).
Telephone system: underdeveloped; internal: no data; international: cable and microwave radio relay communication with the CIS countries, communication with other countries through the Moscow international switchboard; a new telephone line was laid from Ashgabat to Iran; a new telephone exchange in Ashgabat carries out international telephone traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; ground satellite stations – 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat.
Broadcast stations: AM -16, FM -8, shortwave – 2 (1998).
Radio receivers: 1.225 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (many programs are rebroadcast from Russia and Turkey) (1997).
TVs: 820,000 (1997).
Internet country code: tm
Internet service providers: unknown.
Number of users: 2,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 2,187 km; broad gauge: 2,187 km (1.520 m gauge) (1996 est.).
Roads: total: 22,000 km; paved: 18,000 km (these roads are considered to be paved, some are paved, others are gravel and are used regardless of weather conditions); unpaved: 4,000 km (these roads are unusable in rainy weather) (1996).
Waterways: The Amu Darya is an important inland waterway.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 250 km; for natural gas – 4,400 km.
Ports and harbours: Turkmenbashi.
Merchant navy: total: 1 ship (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a displacement of 6,459 gross register tons / 8,865 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of different types: container ship -1 (est. 2000).
Airports: 76 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 13; from 2438 to 3047 m: 9; 1524 to 2437 m: 4 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 63; from 2438 to 3047 m: 7; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5; from 914 to 1523 m: 10; less than 914 m: 41 (2000 est.).
Branches of the Armed Forces: Ministry of Defense (Army, Air Force and Air Defense, Navy, Border Troops, Internal Troops), National Guard.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 1,173,500 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 952,218 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 48,292 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $90 million (1999)
Military spending as part of GDP: 3.4% (1999).
International Issues International Disputes: A multilateral border dispute in the Caspian Sea between Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan.
Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy, mainly for domestic consumption; a limited government eradication program is underway; growing use of the country as a transit point for the transport of drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; the country is also a transit point for the transportation of acetic anhydride to Afghanistan.