Turkmenistan is a Central Asian country. Bathed by the Caspian Sea in the west, it borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the north and east, Afghanistan in the southeast, and Iran in the southwest. It covers an area of 488 100 km2. Its main cities are Ashgabat, the capital, with 744 300 residents (2004), Chärjew (216 700 residents), Dashhovuse (162 900 residents), Mary (115 700 residents) And Nebitdag (87 800 residents). It is a practically desert country, mainly the Karakum area, one of the largest desert extensions in the world, where vegetation and agriculture are only possible in oases, of which the Kopet Dag, in the South, stands out.
Most rivers are located in the eastern part. The main river is Amudária, along which several canals have been built, such as Karakum.
It has a desert or semi-desert climate, with hot summers and severe winters.
Turkmenistan has considerable reserves of oil and natural gas. The country is also rich in salt and potassium and has the best cotton in the world and the famous wool from yarn. Turkmenistan’s main trading partners are Russia, the United States of America, Ukraine and Turkey. Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 6.4.
The population is 5 042 920 residents (2006), which corresponds to a population density of 10.15 residents/km2. The birth and death rates are respectively 27.61% and 8.6%. Average life expectancy is 61.83 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.748 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) was not assigned (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 7 053 000 residents. The main ethnic groups are Turkmen (77%), Uzbeks (9%), Russians (7%), Kazakhs (2%) and Tatars (1%). The most important religions are Sunni Islam (87%) and Russian Orthodox Christianity (6%). The official language is Turkmen.
The Turkmen were a nomadic people who dedicated themselves to pastoralism and were conquered by the Russians in the 19th century. With Soviet domination, they were forced to sedentarize and from 1930 the economy was rebuilt and cotton plantations and gas extraction emerged. It is a Muslim country that grants its people Russian nationality. It became independent from the former Soviet Union on October 27, 1991. To better define its autonomy, it adopted a Latin alphabet. For Turkmenistan democracy and rights, please check homeagerly.
Turkmenistan is part of the Commonwealth of Independent States, but it was the only country in Central Asia to refuse to sign the military integration agreement. Without officially breaking with the CIS, it keeps an autonomous policy to itself. He also refused to participate in the pool of forces designed to maintain peace in Tajikistan. The economic and political decision system depends on the direct authorization of the president. The Constitution, adopted in 1992, instituted a presidential system reinforced by the cult of personality. The president’s name was given to the airport and several streets in the country. In January 1994 a referendum extended the term of President Saparmourad Nyazov.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Turkmenistan, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Turkmenistan. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Turkmenistan
Check out the political and shaded relief maps of Turkmenistan, a central Asian country, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan.
Turkmenistan – Maps of Russia and the FSU Republics
Directory profiling all regions within the former Soviet Union offers a country map and shaded-relief map of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan – Maps.com
User-friendly color map of this former Soviet Union country includes cities, waterways and neighboring countries.
Turkmenistan – Merriam-Webster Atlas
Detailed color map of this Asian country also includes country facts, illustration of the nation’s flag, and a historical summary.
Turkmenistan – National Geographic
Check out a satellite created map of this Asian country with zooming ability. Plus, find cities, land features, and bordering countries.