Economy overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is highly dependent on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP and 85% of exports and employs 80% of the labor force. However, relief and climatic conditions limit cultivated land to 4% of the entire territory. Industry mainly consists of agricultural processing and light industry. The World Bank, the IMF and individual donors are providing financial assistance to Tanzania to develop its economic infrastructure. Economic growth in 1991-99 was accompanied by an increase in industrial output and a significant increase in the extraction of minerals, mainly gold. There is much promise in natural gas production in the Rufiji Delta, due to begin in 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped boost private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and prudent macroeconomic policies should bring Tanzania real GDP growth of 6% in 2001-02. See topb2bwebsites.com to know more about Tanzania in 2004.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $25.1 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 5.2% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $710 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 49%; industry: 17%; services: 34% (1996 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 51.1% (1991 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.9%; by the top 10% of families: 30.2% (1993).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 6% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 13.495 million people
Employment structure: agriculture 80%, industry and trade 20% (2000 est.).
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: revenues: $1.21 billion; expenditures: $1.36 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (1999 est.).
Spheres of economy: processing of agricultural products (production of sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal ropes), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, footwear industry, cement production, textile industry, timber industry, fertilizer and soap production.
Growth in industrial production: 8.4% (1999 est.).
Electricity generation: 2.248 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 22.24%; hydropower: 77.76%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 2.134 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 43 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (an insecticide produced from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; livestock, sheep, goats.
Exports: $937 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: coffee, manufactured goods, cotton, cashew nuts, minerals, tobacco, sisal (1996).
Export partners: India 20%, UK 10%, Germany 8%, Japan 8%, Netherlands 8%, Belgium 4% (1998).
Imports: $1.57 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Imports: consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil.
Import partners: South Africa 8%, Japan 8%, UK 8%, Kenya 7%, India 6%, US 5% (1998).
External debt: $6.8 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $963 million (1997)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Tanzanian shilling.
Currency code: TZS.
Exchange rate: TZS/USD – 803.34 (December 2000), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997), 579.98 (1996).
Fiscal year: July 1-June 30.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 127,000 (1998).
Mobile cell phones: 30,000 (1999).
Telephone system: mediocre system, but it is being upgraded; a VSAT (very low aperture terminal) system is under construction; domestic: a trunking system consisting of landlines, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber optic cable; some stations are switching to digital transmission of information; international: satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean).
Broadcast stations: AM -12, FM -11, shortwave – 2 (1998).
Radio receivers: 8.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (1999).
Televisions: 103,000 (1997).
Internet Country Code: tz
Internet Service Providers: 6 (2000).
Number of users: 25,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total length: 3,569 km (1995); narrow gauge: 2,600 km (1,000 m gauge); 969 km (gauge 1.067 m); note: Tanzanian-Zambian Railways (TAZARA), which owns 1,860 km of track (with a gauge of 1,067 m) from Dar es Salaam to Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km in Zambia), is not part of the “Tanzania Railway Corporation”; due to the difference in gauge, this system is not connected to the tracks of the Tanzania Railway Corporation.
Roads: total length: 88,200 km; coated: 3,704 km; unpaved: 84,496 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa are the most important commercial arteries linking Tanzania with its lake neighbors.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 982 km.
Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mwanza, Mtwara, Pangani, Tanga.
Merchant fleet: total: 8 vessels (displacement of 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 21,987 gross register tons / 27,121 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of different types: cargo ships – 2, cargo-passenger ships – 2, oil tankers – 2, ferries – 1, coastal passenger ships – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 126 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 11; over 3,047 m: 2; from 2438 to 3047 m:2; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5; from 914 to 1523 m:1; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 115; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17; from 914 to 1523 m:63; less than 914 m: 35 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: Tanzanian People’s Defense Forces (includes army, navy and air force), paramilitary police unit, militia.
Total military manpower: male 15 to 49: 8,365,337 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 4,841,095 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year:
Military spending in dollar terms: $21 million (FY98-99).
Military spending as part of GDP: 0.2% (FY98-99)
International Issues International Disputes: Dispute with Malawi over the Lake Nyasa border; reconciliation of the latitudinal border with Uganda in 2000 revealed a 300-meter discrepancy in opinion about its passage.
Illicit drugs: The country’s role is growing as a transit point for heroin from Southwest and Southeast Asia and cocaine from South America destined for the European and US drug markets, as well as methaqualone from South Asia destined for consumption in South Africa.