According to itypeusa, the full internal autonomy achieved in May 1961 was the last stage of Tanganyika – the current Tanzania arose in 1964 from the union with Zanzibar – on the way of independence, proclaimed on December 9, 1961. JK Nyerere, leader of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), victorious in the 1960 elections, handed over the office of prime minister to R. Kawawa, engaging in the search for a socialist way for the economic and social development of the Tanzania, poorly supplied with resources and infrastructures and very little endowed with elites ; he has seen in the ujamaa (community sense) of the traditional African society the value on which to base the construction of the new society of the Tanzania (theory that has been progressively deepening). On December 9, 1962, a republican constitution entered into force (Nyerere had been elected president and Kawawa vice-president). In 1962-63 the administrative system was reorganized: the traditional leaders were abolished while elected councils were introduced, favoring the participation of the rural masses (the Tanzania was divided into 17 regions, in turn divided into “areas”). The discontent, widespread in the armed forces as in other circles, due to the slowness of the “Africanization”, caused in January 1964, shortly after the Zanzibar revolution, some mutinies and riots, also blocked by the British intervention requested by Nyerere. who then completely reorganized the army. The union of Zanzibar with Tanganyika (23 April 1964; from 29 October the state will take the name of Tanzania) aroused some international concern for Zanzibar’s left orientation, but was indeed a success for Nyerere, who has since placed himself among the most prestigious African leaders.
TANU increasingly extended its influence on the political-social life of Tanzania: in February 1964 the National Union of Tanganyikan Workers (NUTA), a branch of the party (general secretary and minister of Labor), completely absorbed the pre-existing trade union organization (since March 1965, registration with NUTA became compulsory for all workers). With the creation of the National Development Corporation of Tanzania (January 1965), state dirigism was accentuated for the implementation of a socialist economy. Even in foreign policy Nyerere (re-elected president in September 1965) was looking for a way of his own: in February he made a treaty of friendship with China while providing support for African liberation movements, many of which found their headquarters in Dār es-Salāām, which also hosted the Committee of OAU for the coordination of the various liberation movements. The progressive orientation of Tanzania marred relations with Great Britain, until the breakup at the time of the Rhodesian crisis (November 1965). The fundamental principles and directives of Tanzanian socialism were set out in the Arusha Declaration (February 5, 1967): the development towards socialism must first of all engage the rural masses and be based on a rigorous morality of all members of the TANU. This was followed by the nationalization of the banks (since 1966 the Bank of Tanzania independently regulated the country’s monetary policy) and of the major commercial, insurance and processing companies of agricultural products. The energetic political direction of Nyerere – which equally invested the educational and cultural field (since January 1967 the independently regulated the monetary policy of the country) and of the major commercial, insurance and processing companies of agricultural products. The energetic political direction of Nyerere – which equally invested the educational and cultural field (since January 1967 the Swahili replaced English as the official language) – caused some dissent (O. Kambona, Secretary General of TANU, resigned). In June 1967 the Tanzania established the East African Community with Kenya and Uganda, the first concrete realization of the unitary wishes already announced before independence; in 1968, while relations with Great Britain resumed and improved those with the West (they failed instead with Malawi for territorial reasons), ties with China were strengthened, which built a railway from Tanzania to Zambia inaugurated in ‘October 1975.
In the seventies Tanzania accentuated socialist choices with the nationalization of many landholdings and the extensive creation of cooperatives and ujamaa villages., concrete realization of Tanzanian socialism; a substantial administrative decentralization has been implemented while the transfer of the capital to Dodoma, in the interior is planned. A constitutional amendment in June 1975 sanctioned the supremacy of the single party over other state bodies. In February 1977 the TANU and the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar merged into the Revolutionary Party of the Tanzania (Chama Cha Mapinduzy, CCM); new prime minister became E. Sokoine. A new constitution (April 1977) has, among other things, attributed to Zanzibar 10 representatives to the National Assembly. Since the dismissal of President Obote – who took refuge in Tanzania, from where his followers attempted a rescue in September 1972 – relations with Uganda have broken down (Amin has often been harshly criticized), who accused Tanzania of invasion plans; the contrast led to the crisis and dissolution (April 1977) of the East African Community. The presence of Hutu refugees in Tanzania caused a crisis with Burundi in 1973, which was completely overcome at the beginning of 1976. Good relations with Zambia and Mozambique (considerable support given by Tanzania to FRELIMO) and even those with Great Britain which has resumed aid since 1974 (in November 1975 Nyerere officially visited London); improved with the United States (visit of Nyerere to the USA in 1977), but also active with the Soviet Union (visit of Podgorny in March 1977). Within the OAU, Tanzania is at the forefront in the fight against persistent colonial situations and racial discrimination. The bond with Zanzibar remained solid, since the Tanzanian government has left wide autonomy to the island, authoritatively ruled by Abeid Karume, victim of a conspiracy (April 1972) after previous plots; he was succeeded by Aboud Jumbe, who is both president of the Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar and vice-president of Tanzania.