Sweden is a Northern European country. Located on the Scandinavian peninsula, it borders Norway in the west and northwest and Finland in the northeast, being bathed by the Gulf of Bothnia in the east, the Baltic Sea in the southeast and the North Sea in south-west. It covers an area of 450 295 km2. The main cities are Stockholm, the capital, with 1 538 517 residents (2016), Gothenburg (581 822 residents), Malmo (307 496 residents) And Uppsala (152 617 residents).
Sweden is traditionally divided into three regions: in the North and Center, the Norrland region , an area of mountains and forests that covers three-fifths of the total territory; the coast, where there are more than 20,000 islands and islets; in the south and in the center, the Svealand region is an extensive flat area in the eastern part and highlands in the western sector.
The Norrland is the main reserve of natural resources and comprises vast forests and deposits of ore; rivers are found here that are born in lakes located at high altitude along the Norwegian border and run through valleys to the Gulf of Bothnia. The Svealand is a sandy area that contains most of the 90,000 lakes in the country. From south to north, the landscape changes, as the beech and oak forests gradually give way to extensions almost devoid of trees but that in summer present a symphony of colors with swamps, lichens and mosses tinted by the flowers of the field.
There are also wild areas that are home to flocks of migratory birds, which are also excellent habitatsfor moose, deer and reindeer. The great number of lakes, the forms of the relief and a coast with fjords and countless islands are the legacy of the ice cover that existed during the glaciations period. The largest natural park in Europe is located in Sweden and covers 1940 km2.
The climate, polar in the North and temperate continental in the South, influences the vegetation: tundra, in the North, and coniferous forest (pine and spruce) in the rest of the territory.
Economy oriented to import and export, its main basic resources are wood, hydraulic energy and iron ore. The most important agricultural products are sugar beet, barley, wheat, potatoes and oats. Sweden is a country with a highly developed industry, especially in the areas of the automotive and pulp and paper industries. Tourism is also an important factor for the country’s economic stability, contributing to this by the excellent system of internal and external communications, the excellent rail network and the good roads and highways. Sweden’s main trading partners are Germany, Norway, the United States of America and Denmark.
It is estimated that in July 2017 Sweden had 9 960 487 residents. The birth and death rates are respectively 12.1% and 9.4%. Average life expectancy is 82.1 years. Swedish natives represent 89% of the population, followed by Finns (2.3%). The population is mostly Lutheran (Church of Sweden). The official language is Swedish.
Art and Culture
One of the best known names in Sweden is Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. In his honor, every year the Royal Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel prizes to the personalities who have stood out the most internationally in various areas of knowledge. Also known are the plays by August Strindberg and the films by Ingmar Bergman.
Sweden has been inhabited since 6000 BC. The Swedish Vikings founded the principality of Novgorod between the years 800 and 1060 of the Christian era. In the mid-12th century, Northern Swedes joined the Southern Goths and accepted Christianity. A series of crusades led Sweden to submit Finland to its domain. Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united under the Danish dynasty between 1397 and 1520. Gustavo Vasa was elected king of Sweden, establishing the lineage of the Vasa kings until 1720. For Sweden democracy and rights, please check intershippingrates.
At this time, Christian reform reached Sweden, but it was Lutheranism that triumphed as an official state religion. In the 17th century, Sweden had great power in the Baltic region. The most prominent of Vasa monarchs, Gustavo II, allied with German Protestants in their wars against Austrian Catholics. Sweden’s status as a powerful nation began to decline in the reign of Charles XII, who was disastrously defeated in his invasion of Russia in 1709. His death in the Northern War in 1718 definitely marked Swedish power in Europe.
The end of the century would be marked by the transition from Vasa absolutism to a parliamentary government. Although the change was slow, since between 1771 and 1792 absolutism was restored by Gustav III, Sweden entered the Napoleonic wars alongside the British, but Gustav IV’s weak leadership led to the loss of Finland to Russia in 1808. Gustavo was deposed the following year, when the French marshal Bernadotte was elected prince of the crown with the name of Carlos João. Nine years later, in 1818, Carlos João became king, under the name of Carlos XIV, establishing a new dynasty.
Apologist for a conservative policy, he remained in power until 1844, when he was replaced by his direct heir. In turn, his son Óscar I (1844/59) and his successor Carlos XV (1859/72) introduced liberal reforms, including free trade, the improvement of education and the representation of parliament, the Riksdag.
In 1905 the union of the crowns of Sweden and Norway was dissolved, during the reign of Oscar II. During the First World War, Sweden remained neutral, but trade broke down and food became scarce. The interwar period was marked by the rise of the Social Democratic Party, which adopted a strategic policy to overcome the crisis of the 1930s. With the outbreak of World War II, Sweden declared itself neutral and struggled with all means to maintain this status. After the war, he joined the United Nations, but continued to follow the policy of neutrality, refusing to be part of NATO and the EEC. Since then, the Social Democratic Party has dominated political life, except in the period from 1975 to 1982 and since 1991. With the fall of the communist bloc, Sweden abandoned the policy of neutrality,
The biggest fears of the Swedish population are the possible racial tensions due to the entry of immigrants and refugees from Finland, the Baltic states, Italy, Greece and Yugoslavia after the Second World War. One in ten Swedish citizens was born abroad or is the son of immigrant parents. The smooth course of Sweden’s political life was badly shaken in February 1986, when Prime Minister Olof Palme was murdered on a street in Stockholm, without the police having so far caught the perpetrator. Olof Palme was elected prime minister in 1969 and carried out two major constitutional reforms. He reduced the chambers of Parliament from two to one in 1971, and in 1975 he removed the constitutional powers of the monarchs. In 1976 he was defeated, but he would return to rule in 1982 with a minority government.
The form of government in Sweden is a constitutional monarchy in which the head of state is the king, who has a mere formal function, and the head of government is the prime minister. The 1809 constitution, amended many times, is based on four fundamental laws: the instrumental act of government, the act of succession, the act of freedom of the press and the act of Riksdag. The Riksdag is the unicameral parliament made up of 349 members elected by universal suffrage.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Sweden, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Sweden. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Sweden
Browse a collection of country, political, shaded relief, thematic and historical maps of this European country. Check out various maps of Baltic Lands.
Expedia.com Maps – Sweden
Detailed interactive map allows users to zoom in and out or explore other parts of the world. Print, email or save the map portion under view.
National Atlas of Sweden
Users may investigate this combination atlas and gazetteer that includes descriptions of related books on Sweden, with links to purchase.
Sweden – Atlapedia Online
Offers a high-definition political and physical map, presented primarily for educational purposes. Includes facts and information about Sweden.
Sweden – InfoPlease.com Map
Presents a colorful, graphic map of this northern European country, with locations of populated areas and river systems identified.
Sweden – Mapquest.com Atlas
View a static, color-coded political map of Sweden and check out a condensed listing of country facts.
Sweden – Merriam-Webster Atlas
Compact-sized atlas includes a detailed map, diagrams, facts and information about the country, and a historical overview.
Sweden – National Geographic Map Machine
Access a satellite image map combined with map editing, zooming, printing and customizing features.
Sweden – Perry-Casta eda Library Map Collection
Look at political and relief maps from the University of Texas at Austin. Includes historical maps and references.
Sweden – WorldAtlas.com
View a number of different map presentations of this Nordic country. With country details, facts and figures, and a question box.