Economy overview: Sudan’s economy has been plagued by civil war, chronic political instability, an unfavorable climate, low world agricultural prices, declining remittances from workers abroad, and inefficient economic policies. The basis of the private sector is agriculture (which employs 80% of the workforce), trade and light industry, mainly the processing of agricultural products. Much of the 1990s characterized by sluggish economic growth as the IMF suspended lending, declared Sudan an uncooperative state, and threatened to expel it from the IMF. Beginning in 1997, Sudan began implementing IMF-recommended macroeconomic reforms that brought inflation down to less than 10%. Sudan’s ability to receive international assistance remains limited as more than 75% of Sudan’s $24.9 billion debt is past due and the country’s civil war continues to isolate Sudan. In 1999, Sudan began to export oil, and in 1999-2000. for the first time there was a surplus in foreign trade. Currently, 185,000 barrels of oil per day are being produced, of which 70% is exported and the rest is refined for local consumption. Oil production is rising, regular rainfall and recent investment in irrigation systems should allow the country to achieve economic growth of 6% in 2001. See topb2bwebsites.com to know more about Sudan in 2004.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $35.7 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 7% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $1,000 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 39%; industry: 17%; services: 44% (1998 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: no data. by top 10% of households: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 10% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 11 million people (1996 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 80%, industry and trade 10%, civil service 6%, unemployed 4% (1996 est.).
Unemployment rate: 4% (1996 est.).
Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion; expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: cotton cleaning, textile industry, cement production, food dye production, sugar production, soap making, shoe industry, oil refining, medicine production, weapons production.
Growth in industrial production: 5% (1996 est.).
Electricity generation: 1.76 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 42.05%; hydropower: 57.95%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 1.637 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: cotton, peanuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugar cane, cassava, mango, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock.
Exports: $1.7 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: oil and oil products, cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum arabic, sugar.
Export partners: Saudi Arabia 16%, Italy 10%, Germany 5%, France 3%, Thailand 3% (1999).
Imports: $1.2 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import articles: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles.
Import partners: China 14.7%, Libya 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.9%, UK 8.7%, France 6.7% (1999).
External debt: $24.9 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $187 million (1997)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Sudanese dinar.
Currency code: SDD.
Exchange rate: SDD / USD – 257.44 (January 2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.8 (1998), 157.57 (1997), 125.08 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 400,000 (2000).
Mobile cell phones: 20,000 (2000).
Telephone system: large, well-equipped by regional standards and upgradable system; provision of cellular services began in 1996 and since then the sector has grown significantly; domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephony, tropospheric scatter and local satellite system with 14 earth stations; international: satellite earth stations – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000).
Broadcast stations: AM -12, FM -1, shortwave – 1 (1998).
Radio receivers: 7.55 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997).
Televisions: 2.38 million (1997)
Internet country code: sd
Internet service providers: 1 (2000).
Number of users: 10,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total length: 5,311 km; narrow gauge: 4,595 km (1.067 m gauge); broad gauge: 716 km (1.6096 m gauge) on plantations; note: the main line linking Khartoum with Port Sudan carries two thirds of all rail traffic.
Roads: total length: 11,900 km; coated: 4,320 km; unpaved: 7,580 km (1996 est.).
Waterways: 5,310 km of navigable routes.
Pipelines: for oil products – 815 km.
Ports and harbours: Juba, Kutei, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Suakin, Khartoum.
Merchant navy: total: 4 vessels (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 38,093 gross register tons / 49,727 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of different types: cargo ships – 2, ferries – 2 (2000 est.).
Airports: 61 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 12; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m: 8; from 1524 to 2437 m: 3 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 49; from 1524 to 2437 m:15; from 914 to 1523 m:25; less than 914 m: 9 (2000 est.). Helipads: 1 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: army, navy, air force, militia forces.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 8,436,732 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 5,194,862 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 398,294 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $550 million (1998)
Military spending as part of GDP: no data available.
International Issues International Disputes: administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with internationally recognized boundary; Egypt claims the “Halaib Triangle”, a barren area of 20,580 square kilometers. (partially administered by Sudan) defined by an administrative boundary line that replaced the boundary established by the 1899 peace agreement.