Sudan is an East African country. Crossed by the Nile River, it covers an area of 2 505 810 km2, being the largest African state, with more than 8% of the continent’s territory. It is bathed by the Red Sea in the northeast and borders Eritrea in the northeast, Ethiopia in the east, Kenya in the southeast, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the south, the Central African Republic, southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, and Egypt to the north. It has a desert area, which is no more than the Sahara desert, in the North and West, occupying about 30% of the country’s total area. The main cities are Omdurman, the legislative capital, with 2,221,500 residents (2004), Khartoum, the executive capital, with 1,452,600 residents, Khartoum North (1,452,600 residents), Port Sudan (468,000 residents), Nyala (395 400 residents) And Kassala (348 600 residents).
From north to south, the climate becomes less arid. In the south of the country, where the relief is higher, the rainy season is longer, allowing the formation of savannas and agricultural practice.
The main agricultural products are sugar cane, sorghum, cotton, dates, peanuts, sesame seeds, arabic gum and wheat. The industry is limited to the processing of agricultural raw materials. Sudan’s main trading partners are Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, Italy and China.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita, has not been attributed.
In 2006, the country had a population of 41 236 378 residents, which corresponds to a population density of 16.04 residents/km2. The birth and death rates are respectively 34.53% and 8.97%. Average life expectancy is 58.92 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.503 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.483 (2001). It is estimated that, by 2025, the population will be 61 339 000 residents.
Sudan occupies much of the upper Nile basin, from the foothills of the East African Highlands to the Sahara. It is a huge country that exhibits ethnic and cultural influences from neighboring countries. In the North, the populations are Arab and Muslim. In the South, black Africans predominate, some Christians but mostly pagans who retain their tribal dialects. Southern tribes include the Dinkas, the Nuers (one of the tallest peoples in the world, measuring many men over 2 meters tall), the Shilluks, the Baris and the Azandes. In the population as a whole, the main ethnic groups are Sudanese Arabs (49%), Dinkas (12%), Nubians (8%), Bejas (6%), Nuers (5%) and Azandes (3 %). The predominant religion is Sunni Islam (72%), followed by traditional beliefs (17%) and Christianity (11%).
In antiquity, two civilizations flourished in this territory: Nubia and Kush. In the 6th century, three Sudanese kingdoms were converted to Christianity and until the 14th century were bastions against the advance of Islam. In 1821 the armies sent by Muhammad Ali, from Egypt, occupied much of the northern region and developed the ivory and slave trade. Later, Ismail Pasha tried to extend Egypt’s influence to the south and appointed English general Gordon governor-general of Sudan. In 1881 Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed led a revolution aimed at reforming Islam and expelling all foreigners from Sudan. Mahdi’s successor was defeated by an Anglo-Egyptian army. In 1956 the civil war broke out and a year later Sudan became independent. The following years would be of political instability. A multiparty democracy regime was followed by a military coup in 1958 and a return to civilian rule in 1964. In 1969 Colonel Nimeiri led a second coup and, three years later, ended the civil war, which had lasted for 16 years. years. At stake were the secular rivalries between the North, of Muslim religion, and the South, of Christian and animistic tradition of African expression. For Sudan democracy and rights, please check getzipcodes.
Nimeiri formed a left-wing government and in 1973 proclaimed Sudan a one-party state. He expelled Soviet military advisers in 1977 and sought help in the West. This new political orientation allowed negotiations with Ethiopia, which resulted in an agreement with Addis-Ababa and the increase in the popularity of General Nimeiri. In the 1980s, Sudan received foreign aid in excess of $ 700 million, more than any other African country.
The country was to be plagued by drought, which left vast areas deserted. The situation was complicated by the arrival of a million refugees, almost all of whom came from Ethiopia, where they were victims of hunger and war.
The Sudanese economy has only remained at the expense of subsidies from the rich Arab countries, the European Union and the United States. In 1983, Nimeiri tried to consolidate his support base among Islamic fundamentalists by introducing Sharia law, with severe punishments in the form of floggings, mutilations and hangings. This policy sparked uprisings in southern Sudan among non-Muslims. The Sudanese people’s liberation army sank a boat in the Nile, causing hundreds of deaths and blocking river traffic, attacking foreign facilities and undermining roads and railways.
The first democratic elections were held in 1986 and put a coalition of northern parties in power that tried to negotiate with the South, but was faced with serious political and economic problems.
The Sudanese population has endured a disastrous economic management in the country, where food shortages continue to worsen, as well as a climate of constant tension and political instability. 20% of GDP is spent on war spending and, in 1995, inflation was 85%.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Sudan, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Sudan. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Sudan
Browse a collection of country, political and shaded relief maps of this Northern Africa country, bordering the Red Sea. View the maps of Juba, Wau, Malakal and Khartoum.
Sudan – Arab.net Geography
Relief map reveals the locations of mountainous regions, rivers and major cities. Offers sections devoted to history, culture and economy.
Sudan – Graphic Maps
Provides a map of the African nation that’s just south of Egypt. Includes an overview of the population and the government system.
Sudan – National Geographic Map Machine
Satellite imaging and political map-making create a zoomable map of this parched African country, with cities, rivers and topography.
Sudan – Regional Map and Information
Detailed color map of this religiously-divided country includes country facts, illustration of the nation’s flag, and a historical summary.
Sudan – University of Texas Library
Locate detailed maps of the country in northeast Africa. Includes a political and a shaded-relief map.