Somalia Military, Economy and Transportation

Somalia Military, Economy and Transportation


Economy overview: Somalia has very few natural resources; it is one of the poorest and most backward countries in the world. In addition, its economy was destroyed by the civil war. The agricultural sector occupies a leading position, livestock production provides about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, whose existence depends on raising livestock, make up a significant part of the population. Livestock and bananas are the most important export commodities; sugar, sorghum, corn, fish and khat are for local consumption. The contribution to the GDP of the underdeveloped industrial sector, mainly engaged in the processing of agricultural products, is 10%; most businesses are closed due to the ongoing civil war. Civil unrest in Mogadishu and elsewhere continues to hamper economic development and international aid. See to know more about Somalia in 2004.
GDP: PPP – $4.3 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: no data available.
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $600 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 60%; industry: 10% (most enterprises were not operating in 2000); services: 30% (2000 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: no data. by top 10% of households: no data. Consumer price inflation: over 100% (businesses print their own money) (2000 est.).
Inflation rate at consumer prices:
Labor force: 3.7 million people. (the number of skilled workers is extremely small) (1993 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture (mainly nomadic animal husbandry) 71%, industry and services 29%.
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: income: no data; costs: no data.
Economic sectors: several underdeveloped industries, including sugar production, textile industry, oil refining (most enterprises are closed), wireless communications.
Growth in industrial production: no data available.
Electricity generation: 260 million kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuel: 100%; hydropower: 0%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 241.8 million kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: livestock, sheep, goats, bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans, fish.
Exports: $186 million (free on board, 1999 est.)
Exports: live cattle, bananas, hides, fish (1999).
Export partners: Saudi Arabia 53%, Yemen 19%, UAE 14%, Italy 5%, Pakistan 2% (1999).
Imports: $314 million (free on board, 1999 est.)
Import articles: industrial goods, oil products, food products, building materials (1995).
Import partners: Djibouti 24%, Kenya 14%, Brazil 13%, Saudi Arabia 10%, India 9% (1999).
External debt: $2.6 billion (1999 est.) Economic aid recipient: $191.5 million (1995)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Somali shilling.
Currency code: SOS.
Exchange rate: SOS/USD – 11,000 (November 2000), 2,620 (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (January 1, 1995), 2 616 (July 1, 1993);
Fiscal year: no data.


Telecommunications Telephone lines:
Mobile cellular telephones: not available.
Telephone system: the entire public telecommunications system was completely destroyed by the civil war; all opposing organizations use their own private systems; domestic: cellular communication systems have recently been established in Mogadishu and other population centers; international: satellite connection with other countries from Mogadishu is available.
Broadcast stations: AM – 0, FM – 0, shortwave – 4 (1988).
Radio receivers: 470,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997).
TVs: 135,000 (1997).
Internet country code: so
Internet service providers: 1 (2000).
Number of users: 200 (2000).


Transport Railways: 0 km.
Roads: total length: 22,100 km; coated: 2,608 km; unpaved: 19,492 km (1996 est.)
Pipelines: for crude oil – 15 km.
Ports and harbors: Bosaso, Berbera, Marka, Mogadishu, Kisimayo.
Merchant fleet: none (2000 est.).
Airports: 62 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 5; over 3,047 m: 4; from 1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 57; from 2438 to 3047 m:4; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13; from 914 to 1523 m: 29; less than 914 m: 11 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: Somalia’s national army should be reformed by an interim government; numerous factions and clans maintain independent paramilitaries, the regional governments of Somaliland and Puntland have their own security and police forces.
Conscription age:
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49: 1,825,302 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 1,011,400 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year:
Military spending in dollar terms: not available.
Military spending as part of GDP: no data available.

International Issues

International Issues International Disputes: Most of the southern half of the border with Ethiopia is a TAC; dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden region.

Somalia Military