Somalia is an East African country. Located in the so-called Horn of Africa, it covers an area of 637 657 km2. It is bathed by the Gulf of Adem to the north, and the Indian Ocean to the east and southeast, and is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, Ethiopia to the west, and Djibouti to the northwest. The main cities are Mogadishu, the capital, with 1 234 800 residents (2004), Hargeysa (328 000 residents), Berbera (232 500 residents), Kismaayo (183 300 residents) And Marka (230 100 residents).
The country is arid, consisting of plateaus covered with sparse vegetation. It is mountainous to the north, the highest being Surud Cad, with 2407 meters of altitude. The country’s two rivers, the Jubba and the Shabeelle, are used for irrigating crops.
The climate is desert in most of the territory, but on the coast the effect of monsoons is felt.
The main activities are agriculture, cattle raising and fishing. The country’s socio-economic situation is a real paradox, with inflation, unemployment, malnutrition and the difficulties of humanitarian aid coexisting with a flourishing trade, especially in cities. Somalia’s main trading partners are Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Djibouti and Yemen. Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita , has not been attributed.
Most of the Somali population is nomadic, with few possessions besides goats, sheep and camels. The sedentary population is concentrated in the mountains, river valleys and coastal cities. In 2006, Somalia’s population was 8 863 338 residents, which corresponds to a population density of 13.47 residents/km2. The birth and death rates are respectively 45.13% and 16.63%. Average life expectancy is 48.47 years. Neither the value of the Human Development Index (HDI) nor the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) have been attributed (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 14 862 000 residents.
In the 14th century the Somalis were converted to Islam by the Arabs who crossed the Red Sea, so Sunni Islam is practically the only religion in the country. They have since shown considerable cultural unity, even though tribal groups are the basis of Somali society. The official languages are Somali and Arabic.
Somali nationalism has already led to a long conflict with Ethiopia and difficulties in understanding with Kenya. At issue is the obtaining of an agreement on the populations living in the border area of Kenya. The Ogaden region was granted to Ethiopia by the British in 1948. This was the reason for the continuing conflict between Somalia and Ethiopia that would culminate in April 1988. For Somalia democracy and rights, please check getzipcodes.
Somalia’s strategic position has made the country an important player in the game of East-West rivalries. The country opted for socialism after a coup in 1969 and was in strict political and military collaboration with the Eastern Bloc to ensure its development. In 1977 a break with the Soviet Union took place because it supported the revolutionary regime in Addis Ababa. After this rupture, Somalia began to focus on the West. However, the war with Ethiopia has generated thousands of refugees and a serious economic crisis. The country only survived thanks to help from abroad.
Since 1978, the coups d’état have been consecutive and culminated in the military dictatorship of General Muhammad Siyad Barre. In January 1991, Siyad Barre left the country and the civil war broke out again. The country was in a state of complete anarchy. The United Nations established forces in the country between 1993 and 1995, but with its withdrawal, public order disturbances returned. A transitional national government was created in August 2000, but was still unable to bring together the different factions that divide the country.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Somalia, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Somalia. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Somalia
Check out the political and shaded relief maps of this Eastern African country, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia. Includes a small map.
Somalia – Ethnic Breakdown Map
Map breaks down the ethnic clans within Somalia. Colors denote the various clans’ geographic spheres of influence.
Somalia – InfoPlease.com Map
Features a clear, easy-to-use map of Somalia with key cities and towns pinpointed, plus bordering countries.
Somalia – Maps.com
African country on the Mediterranean Sea borders Kenya and Ethiopia. Click on the map to view a larger version, or order a copy.
Somalia – Merriam-Webster Altas
Detailed color map of this African country also includes country facts, illustration of the nation’s flag, and a historical summary.
Somalia – National Geographic Map Machine
Offers a map of the nation that rests on Africa’s east coast, with ability to zoom and print.