Economy overview: Rwanda is an agrarian country, with approximately 90% of the population providing their livelihood through agriculture (mostly subsistence). The population density is the highest among African countries; Rwanda is landlocked; it has very poor natural resources and practically undeveloped industry. The main exports are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide destroyed Rwanda’s fragile economic base, impoverished the population (particularly women), and left the country unattractive to private and foreign investors. Nevertheless, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and recovering the economy. GDP began to grow, inflation rates were brought under control. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an agreement with the IMF on obtaining a soft loan for economic structural adjustment (ESAF). The government has also launched a large-scale privatization program together with the World Bank. The continued growth of the economy in 2001 depends on foreign aid and higher world prices for coffee and tea.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $6.4 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 5.8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $900 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 40%; industry: 20%; services: 40% (2000 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 70% (2000 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 4.2%; by the top 10% of families: 24.2% (1983-85).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 4% (2000).
Labor force: 3.6 million people
Employment structure: agriculture 90%.
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: revenues: $198 million; expenditures: $411 million, including capital expenditures – NA (2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: production of cement, agricultural products, small-scale production of beverages, soap, furniture, footwear industry, production of plastic products, textiles, cigarettes.
Growth in industrial production: 8.7% (1998 est.).
Electricity generation: 132 million kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 3.03%; hydropower: 96.97%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 191.8 million kWh (1999).
Electricity export: 1 million kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 70 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: coffee, tea, feverfew (an insecticide produced from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock.
Exports: $68.4 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: coffee, tea, leather, tin ore.
Export partners: Germany, Belgium, Pakistan, Italy, Kenya.
Imports: $245.9 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import items: food, machinery and equipment, steel, oil products, cement and other building materials.
Import partners: Kenya, Tanzania, USA, Benelux, France, India.
External debt: $1.3 billion (1999). Economic aid recipient: $591.5 million (1997); note – in the summer of 1998, Rwanda presented its political goals and development priorities to donor governments, which led to the adoption of long-term assistance programs totaling $250 million.
Donor economic assistance:
Currency: Rwandan franc.
Currency code: RWF.
Exchange rate: RWF/USD – 432.24 (January 2001), 389.70 (2000), 333.94 (1999) 312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 15,000 (1995).
Mobile cellular phones: no data available; note: there is a cellular connection between Kigali and some prefectural centers.
Telephone system: The telephone system is used mainly by businessmen and government; domestic: the capital of Kigali is connected to the administrative centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay; the rest of the system consists of landlines and high-frequency radiotelephony. international: microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite to more distant countries; satellite earth stations – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) in Kigali (telex and facsimile services are provided).
Broadcast stations: AM – 0, FM – 3, shortwave – 1 (1998).
Radio receivers: 601,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997).
TVs: no data; probably less than 1,000 (1997).
Internet country code: rw
Internet service providers: 1 (2000).
Number of users: 1,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: 0 km.
Roads: total length: 12,000 km; coated: 1,000 km; unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.).
Waterways: Lake Kivu is navigable for shallow draft barges and boats.
Ports and harbors: Gizensia, Kibuye, Cyangugu.
Airports: 8 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 4; over 3,047 m: 1; from 914 to 1523 m:2; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 4; from 914 to 1,523 m: 1; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: army, gendarmerie, navy, air force. See militarynous.com to know more about Rwanda Military.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49: 1,815,633 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 924,544 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year:
Military spending in dollar terms: $58 million (2001).
Military spending as part of GDP: 3.2% (2001).
International issues International disputes: Rwanda’s armed forces support rebels in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.