Peru Military, Economy and Transportation

Peru Military, Economy and Transportation


Economy Overview: Peru’s economy is increasingly market oriented, with major privatizations in mining, electricity and telecommunications in 1990. the economy grew rapidly, and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Niño damage to agriculture, the Asian financial crisis and the Brazilian market volatility dampened growth. Peru also had a difficult year in 1999 due to the continued negative impact on the economy of El Niño and the Asian financial crisis. The political instability caused by the presidential elections and the subsequent resignation of President FUHIMORI largely hampered economic growth in 2000
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $123 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 3.6% (1999 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $4,550 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 15%; industry: 42%; services: 43% (1999).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 49% (1994 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: 10% of the poorest families account for: 1.9%; 10% of the wealthiest families account for: 34.3% (1994).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 3.7% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 7.6 million people (1996 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture, mining (mines and open pits), manufacturing, construction, transport, services.
Unemployment rate: 7.7%; part-time employment is widespread (1997).
Budget: revenues: $8.5 billion; expenses: $9.3 billion, including capital investments – $2 billion (1996 est.).
Spheres of the economy: mining of ores, oil, fishing, production of textiles, clothing, food processing, cement production, car assembly, steel production, shipbuilding, metallurgy.
Growth in industrial production: 8.5% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 18.886 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 23.04%; hydropower: 76.43%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0.53% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 17.565 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 1 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: coffee, cotton, sugar cane, rice, wheat, potatoes, bananas, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish.
Exports: $7 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: fish and fish products, copper, zinc, gold, crude oil and by-products, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton.
Export partners: US 29%, EU 25%, Andean Community 6%, Japan 4%, MERCOSUR 3% (1997).
Import: $7.4 billion (free on board, 2000 est.).
Imports: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, oil, iron and steel, chemicals, medicines.
Import partners: US 32%, EU 21%, Andean Community 6%, MERCOSUR 8%, Japan 5% (1999).
External debt: $31 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $895.1 million (1995)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: New Sol.
Currency code: PEN.
Exchange rate: PEN/USD – 3.5230 (January 2001), 3.490 (2000), 3.383 (1999), 2.930 (1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.


Telecommunications Telephone lines: 1.509 million (1998).
Mobile cellular telephones: 504 995 (1998).
Telephone system: meeting modern requirements; domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and national satellite system with 12 earth stations; international: satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable.
Broadcast stations: AM – 472, FM – 198, shortwave – 189 (1999).
Radio receivers: 6.65 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 13 (and 112 repeaters) (1997).
Televisions: 3.06 million (1997)
Internet country code: pe
Internet service providers: 10 (2000).
Number of users: 400,000 (2000).


Transport Railways: total: 1,988 km; with standard gauge: 1,608 km (1.435 m gauge); narrow gauge: 380 km (0.914 m gauge).
Roads: total: 72,900 km; coated: 8,700 km; unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 8,808 km; note – 8,600 km of navigable rivers in the Amazon and 208 km on Lake Titicaca.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 800 km; for natural gas and liquefied natural gas – 64 km.
Ports and harbors: Iquitos, Ilo, Callao, Matarani, Payta, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverri, San Martin, Talara, Chimbote, Yurimaguas; note: Iquitos, Pucallpo and Yurimaguas are in the upper reaches of the Amazon and on its tributaries.
Merchant navy: total: 6 ships (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 40,623 gross register tons / 61,769 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: cargo ships – 5, oil tankers – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 233 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 46; over 3,047 m: 6; from 2438 to 3047 m: 18; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13; from 914 to 1523 m:8; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 187; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m: 1; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25; from 914 to 1523 m:65; less than 914 m: 95 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes naval aviation, marines, coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police (Policia Nacional). See to know more about Peru Military.
Enlistment age: 20 years old.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49 pets: 7,205,675 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 4,847,250 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 276,458 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $1 billion (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 1.9% (2000).

International Issues

International issues International disputes: no.
Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world’s largest producer of coca leaves; the area under coca cultivation decreased by 64% to 34,200 ha in 1996-2000; the bulk of the raw material for cocaine production is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia and Brazil for processing and subsequent sale on the international drug market, but an increasing amount of finished cocaine is sent to Europe or to Brazil and Bolivia for consumption in the countries of the southern cone or shipped to world markets.

Peru Military