Pakistan Military, Economy and Transportation

Pakistan Military


Economy overview: Pakistan is a poor, overpopulated country, plagued by internal political conflicts, a lack of foreign investment, and a devastating confrontation with neighboring India. The MUSHARRAFA government will have in 2000-03. solve the problem of paying off $21 billion of foreign debt, with another $2 billion of debt to the Paris Club delayed. Foreign loans and subsidies account for about 25% of government revenues, but debt service accounts for nearly 50% of government spending. While Pakistan has reached an agreement with the IMF for a $600 million loan to replenish foreign exchange reserves, future borrowing could be at risk if Pakistan fails to improve tax collection and reduce the budget deficit. The program of General MUSHARRAFA, based on the recommendations of the IMF, includes an increase in prices for oil and oil products, streamlining taxation, privatizing state-owned enterprises and improving the foreign trade balance. Be that as it may, Pakistan’s economic prospects remain unclear and changes, contrary to the intentions of the new administration, have so far been negligible. Foreign exchange reserves amount to about $1 billion, the balance of payments is cracking under the impact of high oil prices, foreign and local investors continue to be wary of implementing projects in Pakistan.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $282 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $2,000 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 25.4%; industry: 24.9%; services: 49.7% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 40% (2000 est.).
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 4.1%; by the top 10% of families: 27.7% (1996).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 5.2% (2000 est.).
Work force: 40 million people; note: Pakistan is a major exporter of labor, mainly to the Middle East; child labor is used in the country (2000 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.).
Unemployment rate: 6% (FY99-2000 est.).
Budget: revenues: $8.9 billion; expenditures: $11.6 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (FY99-2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: textiles, food industry, beverage production, building materials production, clothing production, paper industry, shrimp fishing.
Growth in industrial production: 3.8% (1999 est.).
Electricity generation: 62.078 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 63.38%; hydropower: 36.51%; nuclear fuel: 0.11%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 57.732 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, lamb, egg.
Exports: $8.6 billion (free on board, FY99-2000)
Exports: cotton, textiles and yarn, rice, other agricultural products.
Export partners: US 24%, Hong Kong 7%, UK 7%, Germany 6%, UAE 6% (FY1999-2000).
Import: $9.6 billion (free on board, FY99-2000).
Imports: machinery, oil, petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, vegetable oils, cereals, legumes, flour.
Import partners: Saudi Arabia 8%, UAE 8%, USA 6%, Japan 6%, Malaysia 4% (FY1999-2000).
External debt: $38 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $2 billion (FY99-2000)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Pakistani rupee.
Currency code: PKR.
Exchange rate: PKR/USD – 59.152 (January 2001), 52.814 (2000), 49.118 (1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997), 35.909 (1996).
Fiscal year: July 1-June 30.


Telecommunications Telephone lines: 2.861 million (March 1999).
Mobile cell phones: 158,000 (1998).
Phone system: the internal system is quite primitive, but it is being improved; government and business are satisfactorily served, in part because many companies have set up their own private systems; since 1988, the government has given priority to investment in the national telecommunications system, which has significantly improved its quality; despite the general improvement of the trunk and urban systems, the majority of the rural population still does not have access to telecommunications services; domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, cellular and satellite; international: satellite ground stations – 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 active international exchange stations (1 in Karachi and 2 in Islamabad);
Broadcast stations: AM – 27, FM – 1, shortwave – 21 (1998).
Radio receivers: 13.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 22 (and 7 low power repeaters) (1997).
Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
Internet country code: pk
Internet service providers: 30 (2000).
Number of users: 1.2 million (2000).


Transport Railways: total length: 8,163 km; broad gauge: 7,718 km (1.676 m gauge) (293 km electrified; 1,037 km dual gauge); narrow gauge: 445 km (1,000 m gauge) (2000).
Roads: total length: 247,811 km; paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km of motorways); unpaved: 106,559 km (1998)
Pipelines: for crude oil – 250 km; for oil products – 885 km; for natural gas -4,044 km (1987).
Ports and harbours: Karachi, Port of Mohammed bin Qasim.
Merchant navy: total: 17 ships (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 240,605 gross register tons / 367,040 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: cargo ships – 13, container ships – 3, oil tankers – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 117 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 82; over 3,047 m: 12; from 2438 to 3047 m: 21; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 32; from 914 to 1,523 m: 14; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 35; from 1524 to 2437 m:7; from 914 to 1523 m:11; less than 914 m: 17 (2000 est.). Helipads: 8 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: army, navy, air force, civilian militia, national guard. See to know more about Pakistan Military.
Enlistment age: 17 years old.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49 pets: 35,770,928 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 21,897,366 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 1,657,723 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $2.435 billion (FY99-2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 3.9% (FY99-2000)

International Issues

International issues International disputes: dispute with India over the status of Kashmir; dispute with India over the Wular Dam on the Indus River.
Illicit drugs: Key transit point for heroin from Southwest Asia to Western drug markets; drugs flow from Afghanistan to Balochistan province

Pakistan Military