The 2004 presidential elections led to an open power struggle between the government and the opposition, which also revealed the differences between the more pro-Russian southern and eastern regions and the more western-national-Ukrainian western part of the country. After the runoff elections on November 21, 2004, which were overshadowed by serious irregularities, the election commission declared Yanukovych to be the election winner on November 24, 2004, ahead of Yushchenko, who fell seriously ill during the election campaign due to an attack by dioxin poisoning. The pro-Western opposition leader Yushchenko and his allied J. Tymoshenko mobilized on charges of election fraud their supporters (symbol color orange) to mass protests v. a. in Kiev (so-called “Orange Revolution”). While Russia, accused of massive electoral interference, welcomed the result in favor of Yanukovych, v. a. the USA, but also the EU states, the elections.
The country’s Supreme Court canceled the runoff elections on December 3, 2004 and asked for them to be repeated. On December 8, 2004, the parliament passed amendments to the electoral law and the constitution (including a restriction of the power of the president in favor of parliament), which Kuchma put into effect immediately. The repetition of the presidential elections on December 26, 2004 won Yushchenko with 51.99% of the vote, ahead of Yanukovych (44.2%), who failed with several actions to challenge the election before the Supreme Court.
Yushchenko was sworn in as President of the Republic on January 23, 2005. He named Tymoshenko Prime Minister, but soon got into conflict with her, v. a. because of their controversial »re-privatization policy« (attempt to withdraw some of the former state-owned companies acquired at unjustifiably low prices from oligarchs, sometimes by legal means, and to re-privatize them after nationalization); after allegations of corruption, Yushchenko dismissed Tymoshenko and her government on September 8, 2005. On September 22, 2005, the economic expert Juri Jechanurow (* 1948) was elected head of government, but was overthrown by parliament on January 10, 2006.
According to youremailverifier, the parliamentary elections on March 26, 2006 were won by the Party of Regions led by former Prime Minister Yanukovych (32.1% of the vote), followed by the “Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc” (BJUT, 22.3%) and “Our Ukraine” (close to the president, 14%). It was less irreconcilable political positions than personal ambitions of the party leaders that made it more difficult for the president to form a coalition from the forces allied in the 2004 revolution. After no agreement was reached within the constitutionally prescribed period, “Our Ukraine”, communists and the Party of Regions agreed on a coalition; Yanukovych became head of government on August 4, 2006. Growing dissatisfaction with his foreign policy course prompted »Our Ukraine«, which was torn by internal party disputes, to leave the coalition on October 5, 2006.
The country’s domestic and foreign policy course remained controversial between Yanukovych and Yushchenko. The power struggle escalated in 2007 when Yushchenko dissolved parliament by two decrees on April 2 and again on April 26, 2007 and called new elections; the government rejected the presidential decrees that met with protests, and parliament had the constitutional court examine the unconstitutionality of this measure. Finally, agreement was reached on early parliamentary elections on September 30, 2007, in which the Party of the Regions of Yanukovych was able to unite 34.4% of the votes. The Yulia Tymoshenko bloc (BJUT) was able to point to a gain of 1.5 million voters with 30.7% of the votes. On December 18, 2007, an alliance selected »Our Ukraine – Self-Defense of the People« (NU-NS) and BJUT J. Tymoshenko as the new head of government. The coalition broke up – among other things. Yushchenko called up parliament to hold early elections. However, the international financial crisis forced the legislature to meet again, which was able to agree to accept an IMF support loan, but not to provide funds for holding parliamentary elections. Against this background, a new coalition was finally formed under the leadership of Tymoshenko. On February 4, 2009, a vote of no confidence by the Party of Regions against the Tymoshenko government failed.
Tymoshenko, who, unlike President Yushchenko, tried to find a balance with Russia, was defeated in February 2010 in the runoff elections for the presidency against Yanukovych. She received 45.5% of the vote, Yanukovych got 49%. The parliament then withdrew its confidence in the Tymoshenko government. MJ Azarov (PR) became the new Prime Minister; chosen. On October 1, 2010, the Constitutional Court rejected the 2004 revision of the constitution, which had restricted presidential power. Several members of the opposition who belonged to the previous government have been prosecuted. A court in Kiev convicted Tymoshenko on October 11, 2011 to a prison sentence of seven years for alleged abuse of office in connection with Russian gas supply contracts. The judgment met with criticism from the EU. In the parliamentary elections on October 28, 2012, the ruling PR defended its status as the strongest political force with around 30% of the vote and 187 seats. The All-Ukrainian Union “Fatherland” of the imprisoned Tymoshenko got 25.5% and 102 seats. With 14% of the votes and 40 mandates, the UDAR, led and competed for the first time by world boxing champion V. Klitschko , became the third strongest force. On December 3, 2012, Azarov announced his resignation as prime minister, and on December 13, 2012, the parliament re-elected him as head of government in a session that was accompanied by tumults.