Netherlands is a Western European nation, comprising 2 provinces out of the 12 that make up the Netherlands. Situated on the coast of the Plain of Northern Europe, it covers an area of 41 526 km2. It is bathed by the North Sea, to the north and west, and is bordered by Belgium, to the south, and Germany, to the east. The main cities are Amsterdam, the capital, with a population of 742 300 residents (2004), Rotterdam (603 300 residents), The Hague, the seat of government, with 470 300 residents, Utrecht (265 600 residents) And Eindhoven ( 208 500 residents).
The relief of the Netherlands is divided into two distinct areas: the one that covers the south and east of the country, with wavy relief and with a maximum altitude of 322 meters, and the rest of the country, predominantly flat, where, even, it surrounds 20% of the land is below sea level. These lands, called polders, were conquered from the sea through drainage and the construction of dikes in a process that, although dating back to the 12th century, only saw significant advances from the second decade of the 20th century, such as the Delta Plan, taken carried out in the Southwest of the country between 1960 and 1987.
Holland’s climate is maritime temperate, with rainfall relatively distributed throughout the year.
The Netherlands has several natural energy resources, of which natural gas stands out, whose reserves are the largest in Western Europe. As for oil and coal, although they exist in reasonable quantities, they do not satisfy domestic needs, thus forcing the country to resort to importing those materials.
The Dutch economy is one of the most developed in Europe, building its growth on a strong private sector that encompasses all economic activities.
The primary sector is well developed, integrating activities such as greenhouse horticulture (tomatoes, cucumbers and lettuce are the main products), floriculture (mainly dedicated to the tulip, the national symbol) and the creation of dairy cattle that sustain the strong production dairy products. In relation to the secondary sector, the metallurgical, food and tobacco industries are its main sources of income, followed by the chemical, electronic and oil industries. In recent years, the Dutch Government has encouraged the development of other industries, such as aeronautics and automobiles. Finally, in the tertiary sector, the importance of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (founded in the early 17th century) and the Dutch banking system, predominantly in the hands of private groups, is important. On the other hand, the fact that the Netherlands constituted the Benelux (together with Belgium and Luxembourg) and joined the European Union has numerous advantages in terms of commercial transactions. The Netherlands’ main trading partners are Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg, the United Kingdom and France.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 0.5.
Holland, although inhabited since the Low and Middle Paleolithic (250,000 to 35,000 BC), has its roots in the Celtic and German civilizations (8th century to 1st century BC) and in Roman civilization (20th century) I a. To the 5th century AD.). The Roman domain was followed by the Franks, but these were eventually superseded by the Carolingian Empire (which had Charlemagne as its most famous emperor) at the end of the 7th century, which was dismembered after the death of Emperor Louis, the Pio, in the year 840. From the 10th century onwards, several secular and religious principalities began to appear, all with a feudal connection to the German kingdom, with the exception of Flanders, whose count maintained a vassalage with France. These principalities started, in the following century, a period of independence wars, taking advantage of the weakening of the German and French kingdoms, but the latter ended up imposing its dominance in the beginning of the 13th century, maintaining it until the 14th century. The principalities then came into conflict with each other with a view to obtaining dominance in the region, which was to be achieved by Flanders, a principality where the powerful cities of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres were inserted, which were the basis of the economic growth that led Flanders overlapping the principalities of Holland, Brabant and Utrecht. In 1504, Dutch territory became part of the Spanish Crown, participating, since then, in the different conflicts in which Spain was involved. During the Reformation, Holland converted to Calvinism, which inspired Prince William of Orange to lead a revolution opposing the Counter-reform policy led by Philip II of Spain, culminating in the establishment of the United Provinces of Holland (1579), whose independence it was recognized by Spain only in 1648. In fact, in the 17th century, Holland became the leading European country in overseas trade, provoking rivalries with England, a country with which it went to war several times. In 1688, the English Parliament invited William of Orange to rule England as William III, who, through a combination of forces, it faced French power during the reign of Louis XIV. However, throughout the 18th century, Dutch maritime power weakened, making the Netherlands dependent on England. With the French Revolution, Holland became a French protectorate, but in 1814 the house of Orange founded the kingdom of Holland, under the regency of William I (William IV), which included Luxembourg and Belgium (however, in 1830 Belgium became if independent). This year, the Dutch Parliament (referred to as the General States) approved a Constitution that gave Holland the status of constitutional monarchy, in 1848 a new Constitution to give Parliament maximum powers. For Netherlands democracy and rights, please check intershippingrates.
The Netherlands then assumed a status of neutrality, which allowed it to bypass the various conflicts in Europe (including the First World War). Thus, all national forces turned to the country’s development, based on the industrialization of the economy. However, even though it was a neutral country, the Netherlands was involved in the Second World War, when it was invaded by Germany, and, at the end of the conflict, it abandoned its neutrality status and became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (BORN).
The post-war period was marked by the need for national reconstruction, a need that touched all sectors of society and, as such, it was duly used, not only by Queen Guilhermina in the complete and definitive democratization of the political system (implantation of the electoral system of universal suffrage and proportional representation), as well as to establish an economic recovery plan accepted by the Government, the employers and the various workers’ unions. Growth became inevitable and, with the entry in 1958 into the European Economic Community (EEC, today the European Union) and the realization of economic union with Belgium and Luxembourg (Benelux), it gained European contours. The Labor Party has, throughout the post-World War II decades, led Dutch political life, although in recent years it has shared power with the Christian Democratic Appeal Party.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Netherlands, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Netherlands. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Netherlands
Browse a collection of country, political and shaded relief maps of this European country, bordering the North Sea.
Expedia.com Maps – Netherlands
Explore the country using this interactive map’s zoom feature. Includes a link to essential travel facts.
Netherlands – Atlapedia Online
Click to view a political or a physical map featuring cities and rivers of France and Belgium as well as Holland. Includes general geographic details.
Netherlands – InfoPlease.com Map
Features a large, color map of the Netherlands with key towns and cities marked, plus water bodies and neighboring countries.
Netherlands – Merriam-Webster Atlas
Check out this atlas of the home of Amsterdam, including a detailed map, country facts and a historical summary.
Netherlands – National Geographic Map Machine
Provides a topographical and political map of the North Sea country, along with basic statistics on population, literacy and economics.