Economy overview: Morocco’s problems are typical of developing countries; the government needs to limit spending on the public sector, remove restrictions on private enterprise and trade with foreign partners, and achieve sustainable economic growth. To achieve these goals, the government since the early 1980s. implements a reform program with the support of the IMF, the World Bank and the Paris Club of Creditors. The Moroccan Dirham is currently fully convertible for current account transactions; financial sector reforms have been implemented. The drought reduced agricultural productivity, leading to a relative decline in economic activity in 1999-2000. However, during this time, Morocco announced a large inflow of foreign exchange from the sale of licenses to provide mobile communications and the partial privatization of a state-owned telecommunications company. Favorable weather allows hopes for 1% growth in 2001. Long-term and intractable challenges include servicing external debt, preparing the economy for freer trade relations with the EU, improving the education system, and attracting foreign investment to raise living standards and create jobs for young Moroccan population.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $105 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 0.8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $3,500 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 15%; industry: 33%; services: 52% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 19% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.6%; by the top 10% of families: 30.9% (1998-99).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 2% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 11 million people (1997 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15% (1999 est.).
Unemployment rate: 23% (1999 est.).
Budget: revenues: $9.6 billion; expenses: $8.6 billion, including capital investments – $2.1 billion (2001 est.).
Spheres of economy: mining and processing of phosphates, food industry, leather and textile industry, construction, tourism.
Growth in industrial production: 0.5% (1999 est.).
Electricity generation: 13.695 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 89.19%; hydropower: 10.81%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 13.441 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 705 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: barley, wheat, citrus fruits, grapes and wine, vegetables, olives; livestock.
Exports: $7.6 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: phosphates and fertilizers, food and beverages, minerals.
Export partners: France 35%, Spain 9%, UK 8%, Germany 7%, Italy 5% (1999).
Imports: $12.2 billion (free on board, 1999 est.)
Imports: semi-finished products, machinery and equipment, food and beverages, consumer goods, fuels.
Import partners: France 32%, Spain 12%, Italy 7%, UK 6%, Germany 6% (1999).
External debt: $18.4 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $565.6 million (1995)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Moroccan dirham.
Currency code: MAD.
Exchange rate: MAD/USD – 10.590 (January 2001), 10.626 (2000), 9.804 (1999), 9.604 (1998), 9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996).
Fiscal year: July 1-June 30.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 1.391 million (1998).
Mobile cellular telephones: 116,645 (1998).
Phone system: a modern system that meets all essential requirements; however, the level of telephonization is low – only 4.6 fixed telephones per 100 people; domestic: good system of landlines, cable and microwave radio relay; Internet is available but expensive; the main switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; almost the entire national system is digital and uses fiber optic cables; the improved rural communication system uses shortwave radiotelephony; international: 7 submarine cables; satellite ground stations – 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain and Western Sahara; communication via coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; Morocco is a member of the project ”
Broadcasting stations: AM – 27, FM – 25, shortwave – 6 (1998).
Radio receivers: 6.64 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 35 (and 66 repeaters) (1995).
Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
Internet country code: ma
Internet service providers: 8 (2000).
Number of users: 120,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total length: 1,907 km. standard gauge: 1,907 km (1.435 m gauge) (1,003 km electrified; 540 km dual gauge).
Roads: total length: 57,847 km; paved: 30,254 km (including 327 km of motorways); unpaved: 27,593 km (1998 est.)
Pipelines: for crude oil – 362 km; for oil products – 491 km (not used); for natural gas – 241 km.
Ports and harbors: Agadir, Casablanca, Kenitra, Mahammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier, El Jadida, El Jorf Lasfara; also belonging to Spain Ceuta and Melilla.
Merchant navy: in total: 41 ships (of 1,000 tons displacement or more) with a total displacement of 223,052 gross register tons / 272,786 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: cargo ships – 9, chemical tankers – 6, container ships – 5, oil tankers – 3, refrigerated ships – 9, ferries – 8, coastal passenger ships – 1 (1999 est.).
Airports: 69 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 26; over 3,047 m: 10; from 2438 to 3047 m:5; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 9; from 914 to 1,523 m: 1; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 43; from 2438 to 3047 m:1; from 1524 to 2437 m:11; from 914 to 1523 m: 20; less than 914 m: 11 (2000 est.). Helipads: 1 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: Royal armed forces (include the army, navy and air force), gendarmerie, auxiliary units. See militarynous.com to know more about Morocco Military.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 8,182,073 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 5,160,374 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 348,380 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $1.4 billion (FY99-2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 4% (FY99-2000)
International issues International disputes: claims and controls Western Sahara, but the question of its ownership is still open and the UN is trying to hold a referendum to resolve this issue; a UN-brokered ceasefire agreement entered into force in September 1991; Spain owns five sovereign territories (plazas de soberania) lying on and off the coast of Morocco – the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, as well as the islands of Chafarinas, Penon de Alusemas and Penon de Velez de la Gomera.
Illicit drugs: Morocco is a hashish producer; shopping center for local and international drug markets; supplier of hashish to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.