Moldova Military, Economy and Transportation

Moldova Military, Economy and Transportation

Economics

Economy overview: Moldova is known for its favorable climate and fertile cultivated land, but it does not have large mineral deposits. As a result, Moldova’s economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which specializes in growing fruits, vegetables, tobacco and wine. Moldova is forced to import oil, coal and natural gas (mainly from Russia). The lack of electricity was one of the factors behind the sharp decline in production that occurred after the collapse of the USSR in 1991. Through an ambitious reform program, Moldova introduced currency convertibility, relaxed prices, stopped issuing soft loans to state-owned enterprises, privatized land, and abolished export controls and interest rate controls. on loans. However, as a result of the measures taken, it was not possible to overcome political and economic difficulties, both internal and external. In 1998, the economic problems of Russia, Moldova’s main trading partner, were the main reason for the fall in GDP by 8.6%. In 1999, GDP fell again by 4.4%, this was already the fifth fall in GDP in the last seven years; exports have declined, energy supplies are still unstable. GDP also declined slightly in 2000 as a result of a severe drought. GDP growth should turn positive in 2001.
GDP: Purchasing power parity – $11.3 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: -1.5% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity – $2,500 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 31%; industry: 35%; services: 34% (1998).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 75% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.7%; by the top 10% of families: 25.8% (1992).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 32% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 1.7 million people (1998).
Employment structure: agriculture 40%, industry 14%, other industries 46% (1998).
Unemployment rate: 1.9% (only registered unemployed; large number of part-time workers) (November 2000).
Budget: revenues: $536 million; expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures – NA (1998 est.).
Spheres of the economy: food industry, agricultural engineering, production of foundry equipment, refrigeration i installations and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, fabrics.
Growth in industrial production: o 3% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 4.155 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 93.62%; hydropower: 6.38%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 5.78 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 1.916 billion kWh (1999)
Agricultural products: vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk.
Export: $500 million (free on board, 2000).
Export items: food 57%, wine, tobacco; fabrics and shoes, machines (1999).
Export partners: Russia 71%, Romania 9%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 7%, Italy, Belarus (1999).
Imports: $761 million (free on board, 2000)
Import articles: minerals and fuels 38%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (1999).
Import partners: Russia 21%, Romania 16%, Ukraine 14%, Germany 12%, Italy 6%, Belarus (1999).
External debt: $900 million (2000) Economic aid recipient: $100.8 million (1995); note – $547 million received from IMF and World Bank (1992-99).
Donor of economic assistance:
Currency: Moldovan leu.
Currency code: MDL.
Exchange rate: MLD/USD – 12.3728 (January 2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997), 4.6045 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.

Telecommunications

Telecommunications Telephone lines: 627,000 (1997).
Mobile Cell Phones: 2,200 (1997).
Telephone system: unsatisfactory, outdated outside of Chisinau; some modernization measures are currently being taken; internal: new subscribers wait a long time to connect; mobile cellular communication is in its infancy; international: land connection through Romania and Russia; ground satellite stations – In-telsat, Evtelsat and Intersputnik.
Broadcast stations: AM -7, FM -50, shortwave – 3 (1998).
Radio receivers: 3.22 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (and 30 repeaters) (1995).
Televisions: 1.26 million (1997)
Internet country code: md
Internet providers: 2 (1999).
Number of users: 15,000 (2000).

Transport

Transport Railways: total: 1,328 km; broad gauge: 1,328 km (1.520 m gauge) (1992).
Roads: total: 20,000 km; paved: 13,900 km (these roads are considered to be paved, some are paved and others are gravel and can be used in all weather conditions); unpaved: 6,100 km (these roads become unusable in rainy weather) (1990).
Waterways: 424 km (1994).
Pipelines: for natural gas – 310 km (1992).
Ports and harbours: no.
Airports: 30 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 7; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m: 2; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 23; from 2438 to 3047 m:4; from 1524 to 2437 m:1; from 914 to 1523 m:4; less than 914 m: 14 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: ground forces, air force and air defense, republican security forces (internal and border troops). See militarynous.com to know more about Moldova Military.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 1,164,018 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 921,210 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 42,268 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $6 million (1999)
Military spending as part of GDP: 1% (1999).

International Issues

International Issues International Disputes: The breakaway Slav-dominated region of Transnistria, which occupies the territory between the Dniester River and Ukraine, has a de facto government.
Illicit drugs: cultivation of opium poppy and hemp on a limited scale, mainly for consumption in the CIS; a transit point on the route of illicit drugs from Southwest Asia through Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe and possibly the United States.

Moldova Military