Mauritania is a North African country. Located in the western section of the Sahara desert, it occupies an area of 1 030 700 km2. It is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and borders Western Sahara to the northwest and north, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. The main cities are Nouakchott, the capital, with 678,700 residents (2004), Nouadhibou (82,500 residents), Kaédi (52,800 residents), Kiffa (71,000 residents) and Rosso (51,900 residents).
The Mauritanian territory consists predominantly of desert plains.
With a predominantly hot desert climate, Mauritania, however, presents a dry tropical climate in the South, with a short and irregular rainy season from July to October.
Economically, Mauritania has its main activities in agriculture and mining, after fishing. The main cultivation areas are found next to the Senegal River (in the South) and in the oases, mainly producing maize, beans, sorghum, rice and cotton. Agriculture contributes 1/3 to GDP and employs 2/3 of the available labor, although its productivity is dependent on climatic conditions. Mining is strongly implemented in the cities of Zouirât and Akjoujt, where there are extensive deposits of iron and copper that are transported to the port of Nouadhibou via rail links.
On the other hand, the coast of Mauritania is very rich in fish, being exploited jointly by Mauritania and countries like Iraq, South Korea, Romania and the European Union. This wealth also ends up being beneficial for the industrial sector, namely for the canning and processing industries, for which much of what is fished is destined. 50% of export earnings come from fisheries. Mauritania’s main trading partners are France, Japan, Spain and Italy.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 1.2.
The population was, in 2006, 3 177 388 residents, with a population density of 3 residents km2. The birth and death rates are respectively 40.99% and 12.16%. Average life expectancy is 53.12 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.454 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.445 (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 5 292 000 residents.
The main ethnic groups are Moors (70%) and blacks (30%). Of the total population, 1/4 are nomadic. The Sunni Islamic religion is followed by almost the entire population. The official language is Arabic.
Mauritania was first occupied by blacks and the Berbers Sanhadja, who gave rise to the Berbers Almoravids between the 11th and 12th centuries, responsible for the Islamization of neighboring territories. However, and through existing routes between Mauritania and Morocco, the Arabs would subdue the power of the Almoravids in the 15th century, when the Portuguese arrived on the Mauritanian coast, where they built the Arguim fort in 1448. But it would be France to become the colonizer of Mauritania, a process that has its origin in the establishment of the French in Saint-Louis, at the mouth of the Senegal River, culminating in 1920, the year in which Mauritania moved to West African territory French, being ruled from Saint-Louis, Senegal. In 1946 Mauritania became an overseas territory, in 1957, after defeating Morocco in a small war in the North of the country, this country elected a government under the leadership of Moktar Ould Daddah, who established the capital in Nouakchott. Mauritania, which had meanwhile applied for entry into the Francophone Community in 1958, declared total independence on November 28, 1960. For Mauritania democracy and rights, please check getzipcodes.
Until he was overthrown by a military coup d’état on July 10, 1978, Moktar Ould Daddah guided his entire policy on the parameters of his excellent relationship with France, as well as his active participation in the United Africa Organization instead of approaching Morocco , which in 1969 recognized Mauritania’s independence. However, due to Mauritania’s interference in the conflict between Morocco and the guerrillas of the Western Sahara Polisario Front, Ould Daddah was overthrown through a coup led by Col. Mustapha Ould Salek. Moktar Ould Daddah was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly, who would be replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla as Prime Minister in 1980. Four years later, Colonel Maaouya Ould Taya led a peaceful coup. assuming, either the post of president or the post of prime minister, emerging victorious from the first multi-party elections held in 1992. Two years later, on January 20, just eight days before the elections for the local government, the interior minister announced the arrest of a group of voter card counterfeiters, which included members of the government party PRDS (Democratic and Social Republican Party) and opposition parties. Even so, the PRDS won a landslide victory, which was followed by countless complaints from the opposition regarding the credibility of the electoral process. That same year, while negotiations were underway to transfer nearly 20,000 Tuareg refugees to Mali, the Government of Mauritania was beginning to tighten control over Islamic organizations, they even arrested 60 leaders of some of these organizations, accused of creating a climate of fear and undermining the country’s security. This action would have its climax when, on October 19 of that year, the Government ordered the suspension of all activities by the militants of all Islamic organizations in Mauritania.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Mauritania, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Mauritania. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Mauritania
Check out the political and shaded relief maps of this Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. View a city map of Nouakchott.
Mauritania – About.com
Check this overview of the politics, industry, population and geography of this African country. See the map and flag.
Mauritania – InfoPlease.com Map
Peruse a political map that clearly shows the location and spelling for key populated areas. Plus, view bordering nations and river systems.
Mauritania – National Geographic Map Machine
See a map of this former French colony in Africa, using satellite imagery. Features country borders and rivers, plus zoom features.
Mauritania – University of Texas Library
See a map of the city of Nouakchott, along with a shaded-relief and two political maps of the entire nation.
MSN Encarta Maps – Mauritania
Access a well-rendered graphical map featuring the country’s geographical highlights and pinpointing key cities and villages.