Mali Military, Economy and Transportation

Mali Military, Economy and Transportation


Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world; 65% of its territory is desert or semi-desert. Economic activity is limited to the area irrigated by the Niger River. About 10% of the population are nomads; approximately 80% of the labor force is employed in agriculture and fishing. Industrial enterprises are mainly engaged in the processing of agricultural products. Mali’s economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid and is highly sensitive to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, the country’s main export. In 1997, the government continued the successful implementation of the IMF’s structural economic reform program aimed at increasing growth, diversifying, and attracting foreign investment. Persistence in reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 made it possible to increase the rate of economic growth, which averaged 5% annually in 1996-2000. Growth rates in 2001-02 should remain in the region of 5%, the inflation rate should fall below 2%. 11GDP: Purchasing Power Parity $9.1 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 4.8% (1999 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $850 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 46%; industry: 21%; services: 33% (1998).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 11.8%; by the top 10% of families: 40.4% (1994).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 0.8% (2000 est.).
Labor force: no data.
Employment structure: agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.).
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: revenues: $730 million; expenses: $770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.).
Spheres of economy: small-scale production of goods and foodstuffs for local consumption; construction; mining of gold and phosphates.
Growth in industrial production: no data available.
Electricity generation: 445 million kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuel: 44.94% hydropower: 55.06%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 413.9 million kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats.
Exports: $480 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: cotton 50%, gold, livestock (1999 est.).
Export partners: Italy 18%, Thailand 15%, Germany 7%, Portugal 4% (1999).
Imports: $575 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Imports: machinery and equipment, building materials, oil, foodstuffs, textiles.
Import partners: Ivory Coast 19%, France 19%, Senegal 4%, Benelux 3% (1999).
External debt: $3 billion (1999) Economic aid recipient: $596.4 million (1995)
Donor Economic Assistance:
Currency: franc of the African Financial Union (CFA franc, Communaute Finan-ciere Africaine franc); note – the circulation of the CFA franc is regulated by the Central Bank of West African countries.
Currency code: XOF.
Exchange rate: XOF/USD – 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note: since January 1, 1999, the CFA franc has been exchanged for the euro at a ratio of 655.957 CFA francs to 1 euro.
Fiscal year: calendar year.


Telecommunications Telephone lines: 23,000 (1997).
Mobile cellular telephones: 2 842 (1997).
Telephone system: the local system is very imperfect, but is being modernized; the set of services is minimal; domestic: the system consists of microwave radio relay, terrestrial communication lines and radiotelephone stations; the microwave radio relay system is being expanded; international: satellite earth stations -2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean).
Broadcast stations: AM – 1, FM -14, shortwave – 7 (1998).
Radio receivers: 570,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 1 (and 2 repeaters) (1997).
TVs: 45,000 (1997).
Internet country code: ml
Internet service providers: 1 (2000).
Number of users: 10,000 (2000).


Transport Railways: total length: 729 km (connected to the Senegalese railways via Cayes); narrow gauge: 729 km (1,000 m gauge).
Roads: total length: 15,100 km; coated: 1,827 km; unpaved: 13,273 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: 1,815 km.
Ports and harbors: Koulikoro.
Airports: 27 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 7; from 2438 to 3047 m:4; from 1524 to 2437 m:1; from 914 to 1523 m: 2 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 20; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4; from 914 to 1523 m:7; less than 914 m: 9 (2000 est.).

Armed Forces

Branches of the Armed Forces: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale). See to know more about Mali Military.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49; 2,284,632 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 1,309,612 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year:
Military spending in dollar terms: $49 million (1996).
Military spending as part of GDP: 2% (1996).

Mali Military