Mali is a West African country. Covering the southern part of the Sahara desert, Mali has most of its territory in the Sahel belt. It covers an area of 1,240,000 km2 , borders Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso to the southeast, Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the southwest, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west. The main cities are Bamako, the capital, with 953,600 residents (2004), Ségou (102,200 residents), Mopti (115,500 residents), Sikasso (127,900 residents) and Gao (39,000 residents).
The relief of Mali is essentially formed by plains and plateaus. The country’s life is also marked by the presence of two of the main rivers in West Africa, Senegal and Niger.
Mali’s climate is dry tropical in the south and desert in the north. In the dry tropical climate areas there are two distinct seasons: a very long dry season, which runs from November to June, and a wet season, which occurs between June and October, and which is still influenced by the monsoons coming from the southwest.
Mali has, in its southernmost regions, the areas of greatest human activity, since the North of the country is part of the Sahara. It is in these regions, more precisely in the valleys of the Senegal and Niger rivers and their tributaries, that, for example, agriculture, the most important economic sector, is practiced by more than 80% of the active population in order to ensure subsistence. Government efforts to evolve this sector have been unsuccessful, due to constant periods of drought, as well as the low level of available technology. The industry is also not in a better state, as it is based on small companies that process agricultural products, such as rice or cotton. On the other hand, Mali has a considerable fishing activity, such is the richness of fish in the interior deltas. As for mining resources, they are extensive, although their exploitation is minimal, as well as hydroelectric production, a situation that could improve with the construction of the Manantali dam subsidized by the Organization for the Development of the Senegal River, constituted by Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. Mali’s main trading partners are Côte d’Ivoire, France, China and Belgium.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1980), is 0.1.
In 2006, it had a population of 11 716 829 residents. It has a population density of 10.7 residents/km2. The birth and death rates are, respectively, 49.82% and 16.89%. Average life expectancy is 49 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.337 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.327 (2001). It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 21 617 000 residents. In ethnolinguistic terms, the Bambara-Mandingas-Dyula group represents 50% of the population, with a large number of other ethnic groups. The largely dominant religion is Muslim. The official language is French, although there are numerous ethnic dialects.
From 1898 to 1960, a period of time when it was a French colony, Mali was known as French Sudan, adopting the new designation at the height of independence, in honor of the Mali empire that existed between the 12th and 16th centuries. For Mali democracy and rights, please check getzipcodes.
The history of Mali is closely linked to Upper Niger, as it was in this region that the Mali Empire was born in the 12th century. This empire was founded by the Mandinga people on the rubble of the Soninke kingdom of Ghana, and from then on, they controlled the vast network of trade routes, especially gold. The decline of this empire in the 16th century paved the way for Morocco to conquer this territory, which happened, more precisely, in 1591, through an invasion by an army of 4000 men armed with muskets. This image of strength continued throughout the occupation, which ended, first, when they were defeated by the Tuaregs in 1737, and later, when they were expelled by the Fulas in 1833. Meanwhile, a new empire began to emerge in Ségou , established by the Bambara. Under the name of Ségou Tukulor,
Mali’s independence process started in 1946, when political parties were created to belong to the Territorial Assembly formed in the meantime, standing out, from the beginning, the Assembly Party of the African Democratic Union (US-GDR), as well as its leader, Modobo Keita. On November 24, 1958, the territory changed its name to the Sudanese Republic, constituting an autonomous state in the French-speaking community and joining, on January 10, 1959, Senegal to form the Federation of Mali under the presidency of Modobo Keita. Finally, on September 22, 1960, the US-RDA Congress proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Mali, with Modobo Keita as its first president.
The US-RDA policy proved to be based on Marxism-Leninism, as it was based on a radical socialist policy, on the nationalization of the entire economy and on a cultural revolution similar to that practiced in China. However, this policy was not to the liking of the general population, thus creating conditions for a coup d’état, which came to pass on November 19, 1968, led by Lieutenant Moussa Traoré. A Military National Liberation Committee was formed, which governed the country until 1979, when a civilian government was elected following the approval of a new Constitution in 1974 (the year of the first military confrontation with Burkina Faso on the subject) Agacher Strip, on the border between the two territories). However, Traoré remained president, although with the party of the Democratic and People’s Union of Mali to rule the country. He was re-elected to office in 1985 (just before the second and last military clash with Burkina Faso, which lasted only 5 days) and deposed in 1991 through a coup d’état that aimed to increase the democracy factor in Mali. Three years later, and as the objectives of that coup d’état were not being respected, a gigantic student movement broke out against the Government, forcing the then Prime Minister, Sekou Sow, to resign, being replaced by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. , Boubacar Keita. This new prime minister imposed a repressive policy, the measures of which ranged from the closure of opposition media to the closure of secondary schools and higher education. These measures were not, however, enough to end internal instability, as students in particular supported the actions of clandestine armed groups linked to Tuareg rebels against multinational interests in Mali, actions that continued even after the signing of an agreement that provided for the integration of the Movement’s rebels of the United Front of Azaouad in the government army. Since then, discussions about the problem of Tuareg refugees in Algeria and Mauritania have dominated Mali’s political agenda. these actions continued even after the signing of an agreement that foresaw the integration of the rebels of the Azaouad United Front Movement into the government army. Since then, discussions about the problem of Tuareg refugees in Algeria and Mauritania have dominated Mali’s political agenda.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Mali, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Mali. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Mali
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Mali – About.com
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Mali – InfoPlease.com Map
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Mali – Maps.com
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Mali – National Geographic Map Machine
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MSN Encarta Maps – Mali
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