Madagascar Military, Economy and Transportation

Madagascar Military, Economy and Transportation

Economics

Economy overview: Madagascar suffers from chronic food shortages, insufficient health and education facilities, a 3% annual population growth and devastating deforestation accompanied by soil erosion. The agricultural sector, which includes fishing and forestry, is central to the economy; its contribution to the total GDP is 30%, and its products provide more than 70% of the profits from export trade. Industry is limited to the production of textiles and the processing of agricultural products. Production growth in 1992-97. the average was less than the population growth. The development of the economy was held back by anti-government strikes and demonstrations, falling global demand for coffee, and government inconsistency in economic reforms. Key factors for future growth will be the expansion of reforms, foreign economic assistance and foreign investment. In 2001, growth should be about 5%.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $12.3 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $800 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 30%; industry: 14%; services: 56% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 70% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 1.9%; by the top 10% of families: 36.7% (1993).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 10% (1999 est.).
Labor force: 7 million people (1999).
Employment structure:
Unemployment rate: no data.
Budget: revenues: $553 million; expenditures: $735 million, including capital investment – NA (1998 est.).
Spheres of economy: production of meat products, soap production, brewing, leather production, sugar production, textile industry, production of glass products, cement, car assembly, paper production, oil extraction, tourism.
Growth in industrial production: 3% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 810 million kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 37.04%; hydropower: 62.96%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 753.3 million kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves (spice), cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products.
Exports: $538 million (free on board, 1998 est.)
Exports: coffee, vanilla, edible shellfish, sugar, cotton fabrics, chromite, petroleum products.
Export partners: France 41%, USA 19%, Germany 13%, UK 8%, Japan 6% (1999).
Imports: $693 million (free on board, 1998 est.)
Imports: semi-finished products, capital goods, oil, consumer goods, foodstuffs.
Import partners: France 34%, Hong Kong 6%, China 6%, Japan 5%, Singapore 4% (1999).
External debt: $4.4 billion (1997 est.) Economic aid recipient: $838 million (1997)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Malagasy franc.
Currency code: MGF.
Exchange rate: MGF/USD – 6,656.3 (November 2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.

Telecommunications

Telecommunications Telephone lines: 43,000 (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 4,000 (1997).
Telephone system: the quality of the system is above average in the region; domestic: landlines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, troposcatter communications; international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite ground stations – 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region).
Broadcasting stations: AM – 2 (and 8 repeaters), FM – 7, shortwave – 5 (1998).
Radio receivers: 3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (and 36 repeaters) (1997).
TVs: 325,000 (1997).
Internet Country Code: mg
Internet Service Providers: 2 (2000).
Number of users: 8,000 (2000).

Transport

Transport Railways: total length: 883 km; narrow gauge: 883 km (1,000 m gauge) (1994).
Roads: total length: 49,837 km; coated: 5,781 km; unpaved: 44,056 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: are of local importance only.
Ports and harbors: Antseranana, Antsuhimbundru-na, Mahajanga, Tuamasina, Tulear.
Merchant fleet: total: 13 ships (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 24,819 gross register tons / 34,173 long tons of gross tonnage; different types of ships: cargo ships – 7, chemical tankers – 1, liquefied gas tankers – 1, oil tankers – 2, ferries – 2 (2000 est.).
Airports: 130 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 29; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m: 2; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5; from 914 to 1523 m:19; less than 914 m: 2 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 101; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2; from 914 to 1523 m:56; less than 914 m: 43 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the Armed Forces: People’s Armed Forces (including air and sea forces, including the Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment.┬áSee militarynous.com to know more about Madagascar Military.
Enlistment age: 20 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 3,640,554 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 2,159,767 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 153,856 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $29 million (1994)
Military spending as part of GDP: 1% (1994).

International Issues

International problems International disputes: claims the islands of Bassas da India, Europe, Glorieuses, Juan de Nova and Tromelin (all of these islands belong to France).
Illicit drugs: Madagascar is a producer of cannabis (wild and cultivated varieties), mainly for local consumption; transit point for heroin.

Madagascar Military