Macedonia Military, Economy and Transportation

Macedonia Military, Economy and Transportation


Economy overview: At the time of independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed republic within Yugoslavia, accounting for less than 5% of the total federal production of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended subsidies to the center and destroyed the benefits of being in a de facto free trade zone. Lack of infrastructure, UN sanctions against Yugoslavia, the largest trading partner, and an economic embargo from Greece hindered economic growth until 1996. After that, GDP increased every year, in 2000 the growth was 5%. Successful privatization in 2000 dramatically increased the country’s foreign exchange reserves, exceeding $700 million. In addition, the country’s leadership is committed to economic reforms, the principles of free trade and regional integration. Inflation jumped to 11% in 2000,
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $9 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 5% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $4,400 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 12%; industry: 25%; services: 63% (2000 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 25% (2000 est.).
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: for the poorest 10% of households: n/a; by top 10% of households: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 11% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 1 million people (1999 est.).
Employment structure: no data.
Unemployment rate: 32% (2000 est.).
Budget: revenues: $1.06 billion; expenses: $1 billion, including capital investments – $107 million (1996 est.).
Spheres of economy: mining of coal, chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel; production of textiles, wood products; tobacco.
Growth in industrial production: 3% (2000).
Electricity generation: 6.395 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 82.25%; hydropower: 17.75%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 5.992 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 30 million kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 75 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, lamb.
Exports: $1.4 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Export items: food products, drinks, tobacco; various manufactured goods, iron and steel.
Export partners: Germany 22%, Yugoslavia 22%, USA 12%, Greece 7%, Italy 6% (2000).
Imports: $2 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Imports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs.
Import partners: Germany 13%, Ukraine 13%, Russia 10%, Yugoslavia 8%, Greece 8% (1998).
External debt: $1.4 billion (2000). Economic aid recipient: $100 million from the EU (2000).
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Macedonian dinar.
Currency code: MKD.
Exchange rate: MKD/USD – 64.757 (January 2001), 65.904 (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997), 39.981 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.


Telecommunications Telephone lines: 408,000 (1997).
Mobile Cell Phones: 12,362 (1997).
Telephone system: internal: no data; international: no data.
Broadcast stations: AM – 29, FM – 20, shortwave – 0 (1998).
Radio receivers: 410,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 31 (and 166 repeaters) (1995).
Televisions: 510,000 (1997).
Internet country code: mk
Internet service providers: 6 (2000).
Number of users: 30,000 (2000).


Transport Railways: total: 699 km; standard gauge: 699 km (1.435 m gauge) (233 km electrified); note: a new 56 km Kumanovo-Belyakovtsy branch line to the border with Bulgaria is under construction (2001).
Roads: total: 8,684 km; paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways); unpaved: 3,144 km (1997 est.).
Waterways: navigation only on lakes on the borders with Greece and Albania.
Pipelines: 10 km.
Ports and harbours: no.
Airports: 16 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 10; from 2438 to 3047 m: 2; less than 914 m: 8 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 6; from 914 to 1523 m:3; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.).

Armed Forces

Branches of the armed forces: army (including air force and air defense), police. See to know more about Northern Macedonia Military.
Enlistment age: 19 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 548,183 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 442,053 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 17,905 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $76.3 million (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 2.17% (2000)

International Issues

International problems International disputes: dispute with Greece over the name of the country; the border alignment agreement concluded in February 2001 with Yugoslavia stipulates a two-year period for the implementation of its terms.
Illicit drugs: Macedonia is growing in importance as a transit point for heroin and hashish from Southwest Asia; a secondary transit route for South American cocaine entering Europe.

Macedonia Military