Borders and area. – The border between Libya and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established with the protocol of 30 July 1934: the route follows the 25th meridian East (border with Egypt according to the agreement of 6 December 1925) from the 22nd to the 20th parallel, then turns west at a right angle following the 20th parallel until it meets the 24th meridian; from here with another right angle it turns south up to 18 ° 45 ′ lat. N. where it crosses the border line with French Equatorial Africa and Sudan. A part of the Gebel Auenát with some wells, the Gebel Scezzi and the Gebel Ierghedida remain in Libyan territory; in Sudanese territory remains the Jebel Kissu. The border between Libya and French Equatorial Africa (southern border) was established with the Italian-French agreement of 7 January 1935; it from Tummo to the point of intersection between 18 ° 45 ′ lat. N. and the 24 long. E. should follow a straight line, except for some deviations through the Tibesti massif; however it has not yet been delimited on the ground, as the boundary between Tummo and the area of Gath is not delimited. In any case, the north-east slope of the Tibesti remains in Italian territory with five or six inhabited localities, including Tavara, Tunni and Guezendi.
According to official data, the total area of Libya is 1,754,000 sq km. and the population, according to the census of 21 April 1936, of 839,524 residents According to the r. decr. December 3, 1934 Libya forms a single general government, divided into four provincial commissariats – undoubtedly called provinces in 1936 – and a southern military territory.
The following table contains the basic statistical data:
Also noteworthy are the results of the 1936 census regarding the distribution of indigenous people according to stability and according to the professed religions.
Note the decrease in the number of nomads compared to the data, although not always complete and exact, that were previously possessed.
Knowledge progress. – Knowledge of Libya has made significant progress in recent years, especially for inland regions. Since 1933 the topographical survey has been resumed with great activity, which has as its program the execution of a 100,000 map of the whole northern Tripolitania (north of the parallel 31 ° 40 ‘) in 36 sheets and of the peninsular part of Cyrenaica; of a paper at 400,000 based on expeditious surveys, in 15 sheets and a summary paper at the millionth. Of the 100,000 paper (already begun, with limited operations, in 1914-15), about 35 sheets have so far been found, 17 in Tripolitania (where photogrammetric procedures have been widely used) and the same number in Cyrenaica. Of the 400,000 paper, 16 sheets are compiled, covering an area of approximately 600,000 sq km; of paper to the millionth. For Libya 2009, please check hyperrestaurant.com.
Of great importance were the expeditious surveys carried out by the Marchesi mission in the Cyrenaic hinterland and particularly in the Cufra area (8200 sq. Km. Measured at 100.000) and in the desert area further south up to Auenát (180.000 sq. Km. Detected at 400.000).
The Hydrographic Institute of the R. Marina has completed and published the bathymetric survey of the Sea of Sirti, carrying out an impressive number of soundings with acoustic procedures.
For the knowledge of the Italian Sahara, the missions of the Royal Academy of Italy were of great importance, especially those of A. Desio, who was also able to collect elements to compose an overall picture of the geology of Libya. The Auenát massif has been the subject of repeated exploration. The Royal Italian Geographic Society has carried out the exploration of the western Italian Sahara, in all fields, from geology to archeology, from morphology to anthropogenic and economic conditions, through eight successive expeditions, linked together (1932-35) and has published the results in a large and documented volume. It has also begun the exploration of the eastern Sahara (Monterin mission, 1935), which will soon be completed with an organic program of works.
Other missions and studies have contributed to the knowledge of climatic conditions (Fantoli), fauna (Zavattari, Scortecci, the latter also in the Tassili area, 1936), anthropogeographic (Scarin). Foreign scholars have also carried out explorations and research, largely aided by the Italian authorities.
In a conference of Italian geographers held in Tripoli in 1936 the state of knowledge on Libya was summarized in the various fields that directly or indirectly affect geography. The collection and coordination of materials for knowledge of the country is now provided by a Natural History Museum set up in Tripoli, while the Libya Study Office, which is now unified with headquarters in Tripoli, continues the publication of its six-monthly bulletins.