According to itypeusa, Kosovo is a small country in the Balkan region, whose status is still uncertain. Although the country has been under the control of an international stabilization force since 1999, and although the national parliament adopted a unilateral declaration of independence in 2008, even today Belgrade refuses to recognize the independence of what it continues to consider a region. autonomous of Serbia. The Kosovar question represents at the same time the last chapter of the Balkan wars of the 1990s, as well as the emblem of all the latent contradictions of the fragmentation process of the former Yugoslavia.
Unlike other former Yugoslav countries, Kosovo has failed to achieve rapid independence. The repression of the independence movement by Belgrade was followed in 1999 by a NATO air intervention which forced the Yugoslav Federation to accept the withdrawal of all its troops from the disputed region. The mission for the interim administration of Kosovo of the United Nations (Unmik) took their place, under the aegis of which 50,000 NATO soldiers (Kosovo Force, Kfor) were supposed to ensure stability and security in the region, pending an agreement compromise sanctioned its new status. The transition process that began at that time has not yet come to an end. The complex provisional administration system of Unmik is still in force today, which assigns broad powers to a special representative appointed by the United Nations, including the prerogatives of choosing judges and vetoing the laws adopted by the government. The provisional institutions of presidency, government and parliamentary assembly are organized under the supervision of the special representative. After nearly a decade of failed mediations, in February 2008 the Kosovar parliament decided to unilaterally proclaim independence from Serbia. The expected reaction of Belgrade was followed by that of the northern region of Kosovo, with a Serbian majority, which proclaimed the establishment of a parallel parliament, consolidating its position of semi-autonomy from Priština. In April of the same year, the Kosovo parliamentary assembly adopted a new constitution. The early elections of December 2010, which saw the reconfirmation of the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosovës, Pdk) of Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi, were the first to be held in compliance with the new electoral law and the guarantees of representation of minorities provided for by the new Constitution. Faced with the difficult management of the transition under the aegis of the United Nations and the running-in of the European mission Eulex(European Union Rule of Law Mission) – whose commitment was renewed at least until June 15, 2016 -, the declaration of independence had the effect of exacerbating tensions with Belgrade and highlighting the fractures at the international level. Although Serbia officially continues not to recognize Kosovo’s statehood, the two realities have long started a process of stabilization and normalization of bilateral relations, which, under the mediation of the European Union, has led to the signing of a series of agreements in 2013 and 2015 functional for both – albeit with different times and methods – to a progressive integration into the community space.
Despite the increase in the number of states that have recognized the independence of Kosovo – 2014 are 111 to 193 of A (56.9%), including 86% of the members of NATO and 82% of the countries of ‘ Eu -, the opposition of some great powers still remains firm (Russia, China, India, Brazil), as well as the clear opposition of some European states (Spain, Cyprus, Greece, Slovakia and Romania), committed to containing the requests secessionists within their own borders.
Kosovo still continues to survive today only thanks to the support of the international community, which guarantees internal and external security, supporting the economy with substantial aid. The central structures are in fact still weak and are unable to guarantee an adequate level of stabilization. The early political elections of June 2014 – called due to a government crisis that opened due to the failure to approve a bill relating to the security apparatus – launched a long phase of institutional stalemate: the impasse, fueled by the difficulties of formation of a new government coalition, was resolved only in December 2014 thanks to an agreement between the two main political forces, the PDK and the Democratic League of Kosovo(Ldk). The current executive is chaired by Isa Mustafa (Ldk), while Thaçi (Pdk), now vice premier, has assumed the leadership of the foreign ministry. The well-known hostility between the two sides in any case raises many questions about the solidity of the new government.