Economy overview: Jordan is a small Arab country with scarce water and natural resources, including oil. The Gulf crisis that erupted in August 1990 exacerbated Jordan’s already severe economic difficulties, forcing the government to cut off most debt payments and suspend negotiations. Aid from the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, transfers from compatriots working abroad and trade have fallen sharply; The country was flooded with refugees, which led to serious problems in the balance of payments, the cessation of GDP growth and the depletion of state resources. The economy revived in 1992, largely due to the influx of capital brought into the country by workers who returned from the Gulf countries. Average GDP growth rate in 1992-95. was 9%, but in 1996-99 – only 1.5%. To boost growth, King ABDULLAH introduced limited economic reforms, including the partial privatization of some state-owned enterprises and Jordan’s accession in January 2000 to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Debt, poverty and unemployment remain the main pressing economic problems. See cheeroutdoor.com to know more about Jordan Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $17.3 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 2% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $3,500 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 3%; industry: 25%; services: 72% (1998 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 30% (1998 est.).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.4%; by the top 10% of families: 34.7% (1991).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 0.7% (2000 est.).
Work force: 1.15 million people; note: at least 300,000 additional workers work abroad (1997 est.).
Employment structure: industry 11.4%, trade, restaurant and hotel business 10.5%, construction 10%, transport and communications 8.7%, agriculture 7.4%, other services 52% (1992).
Unemployment rate: officially 15%; really 25-30% (1999 est.).
Budget: revenues: $2.8 billion; expenditures: $3.1 billion including capital expenditures – NA (2000 est.).
Economic sectors: phosphate mining, oil refining, cement production, potash mining, light industry, tourism.
Growth in industrial production: 3.8% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 6.657 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 99.79%; hydropower: 0.21%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 6.594 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 4 million kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 407 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: wheat, barley, citrus fruits, tomatoes, melons, olives; sheep, goats, poultry.
Exports: $2 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: phosphates, fertilizers, potash, agricultural products, manufactured goods.
Export partners: Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, EU, Indonesia, UAE, Lebanon, Kuwait, Syria, Ethiopia.
Import: $4 billion (free on board, 2000 est.).
Imports: crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, animals, manufactured goods.
Import partners: Germany, Iraq, USA, Japan, UK, Italy, Turkey, Malaysia, Syria, China.
External debt: $8 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: official development support $850 million (1996 est.).
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Jordanian dinar.
Currency code: JOD.
Exchange rate: JOD/USD -0.7090 (since 1996); note: since May 1989, the dinar has been pegged to a group of currencies.
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 403,000 (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 75,000 (1999).
Phone system: there has been an improvement in the quality of communication due to the increased use of digital equipment, but rural areas need better telephone communications, and cities need to expand the payphone network; internal: microwave radio relay, coaxial and fiber optic cables are used in trunk lines; the system of mobile cellular communication has received significant development; there is also Internet access; international: ground satellite stations – 3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat and 29 land and sea terminals Inmarsat; fiber optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay to Egypt and Syria; communication line with the international submarine cable FLAG (fiber optic cable encircling the earth); member of Medarabtel; in total about 4,000 international communication lines.
Broadcast stations: AM – 6, FM – 5, shortwave – 1 (1999).
Radio receivers: 1.66 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 8 (and approximately 42 repeaters) (1999).
Televisions: 500,000 (1997).
Internet country code: jo
Internet service providers: 5 (2000).
Number of users: 87,500 (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 677 km; narrow gauge: 677 km (1.050 m gauge) (2000).
Roads: total: 8,000 km; coated: 8,000 km; unpaved: 0 km (2000 est.).
Pipelines: for crude oil – 209 km.
Ports and harbours: Aqaba.
Merchant fleet: total: 6 ships (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 40,919 gross register tons / 57,777 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of different types: dry cargo ships – 1, cargo ships – 3, container ships – 1, ferry – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 18 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 15; over 3,047 m: 7; from 2438 to 3047 m:6; from 914 to 1,523 m: 1; less than 914 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 3; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.). Helipads: 1 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; they include the Royal Jordanian Land Forces, the Royal Jordanian Navy and the Royal Jordanian Air Force); Public Security Forces of the Ministry of the Interior (included in the JAF only in wartime and in case of emergencies).
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 1,458,571 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 1,034,109 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 57,131 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $608.9 million (1998)
Military spending as part of GDP: 7.8% (1998).