Japan Military, Economy and Transportation

Japan Military, Economy and Transportation

Economy

Economy overview: Cooperation between government and business, a strict work ethic, dominance of high technology, and relatively low defense spending (about 1% of GDP) have helped Japan move forward at an extraordinary pace and become the world’s second largest economy (after the United States) in technological development and the third (after the United States and China). ) by the size of the economy. A notable feature of the Japanese economy is the collaboration of manufacturers, suppliers and distributors within integrated groups called keiretsu. Another characteristic has always been a lifetime guarantee of employment for a significant part of the workers in the cities. Both of these features of the Japanese economic system are now collapsing. Industry, the most developed sector of the economy, is highly dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The much smaller agricultural sector is heavily subsidized and protected by the government, producing some of the highest yields in the world. Traditionally self-sufficient in rice, Japan imports about 50% of the other grains and feed it needs. Japan has one of the largest fishing fleets in the world and accounts for almost 15% of the world’s seafood. For three decades, economic growth has been impressive: averaging 10% per year in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 4% in the 1980s. Growth slowed down noticeably in 1992-95. largely due to the effects of overinvestment in the late 80s. and controversial domestic policies focused on generating speculative income in the stock market and in the real estate sector. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and faced even greater setbacks in late 2000 due to the slowdown in the American and Asian economies. Overcrowding and population aging are two major challenges for the future. Robotization is the backbone of future economic power, with Japan owning 410,000 of the world’s 720,000 industrial robots.┬áSee cheeroutdoor.com to know more about Japan Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $3.15 trillion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 1.3% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity – $24,900 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 2%; industry: 35%; services: 63% (1999 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 4.8%; by the top 10% of families: 21.7% (1993).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: -0.7% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 67.7 million people (December 2000).
Employment structure: Labor force by areas of employment: trade and services 65%, industry 30%, agriculture, forestry and fisheries 5%.
Unemployment rate: 4.7% (2000)
Budget: revenues: $441 billion; spending: $718 billion, including capital expenditures (public facilities only) of $84 billion (FY01-02 est.).
Economic sectors: one of the largest and most technologically advanced manufacturers of automobiles and other vehicles in the world, the production of electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and non-ferrous metals, ships, chemicals, fabrics, food products.
Growth in industrial production: 5.3% (2000 est.).
Power generation: 1.018 trillion kWh (1999). Electricity generation by source: fossil fuel: 58.91%; hydropower: 8.35%; nuclear fuel: 30.31%; others: 2.43% (1999).
Sources of electricity generation:
Electricity consumption: 947.038 billion kWh (1999).
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: rice, sugar beets, fruits; pork, poultry, dairy products, egg, fish.
Export: $450 billion (free on board, 2000) Export products: vehicles, semiconductor devices, office equipment, chemicals.:
Export items: Export
partners: USA 30%, Taiwan 7%, South Korea 6.4%, China 6.2%, Hong Kong 5.6% (2000 est.).
Import: $355 billion (S.I.F., 2000). Imported products: fuel, food, chemicals, fabrics, office equipment.
Imports:
Import partners: USA 19%, China 14.5%, South Korea 5.4%, Taiwan 4.8%, Indonesia 4.3%, Australia 3.9% (2000 est.).
External debt: no data.
Donor of economic aid: official development support – $9.1 billion (1999).
Currency: yen.
Currency code: JPY.
Exchange rate: JPY/USD – 117.10 (January 2001), 107.77 (2000), 113.91 (1999), 130.91 (1998), 120.99 (1997), 108.78 (1996).
Fiscal year: April 1-March 31.

Telecommunications

Telecommunications Telephone lines: 60.381 million (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 63.88 million (2000)
Telephone system: excellent domestic and international communications; internal: high technological level and excellent service of any kind; international: satellite earth stations – 5 Yntelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean region); submarine cables linking China, the Philippines, Russia and the US (via the island of Guam) (1999).
Broadcast stations: AM – 190, FM – 88, shortwave -24 (1999).
Radio receivers: 120.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 7,108 (and 441 repeaters; note – the US military is also served by 3 TV stations and two TV cable services) (1999).
Televisions: 86.5 million (1997)
Internet Country Code: jp
Internet Service Providers: 73 (2000).
Number of users: 27.06 million (2000)

Transport

Transport Railways: total: 23,670.7 km; standard gauge: 2,893.1 km (1.435 m gauge) (fully electrified); narrow gauge: 89.8 km (1.372 m gauge) (fully electrified); 20,656.8 km (1.067 m gauge) (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km (0.762 m gauge) (3.6 km electrified) (1994).
Roads: Highways: total: 1,152,207 km; paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways); unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)
Waterways: approximately 1,770 km; ships sail all inland seas.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 84 km; for oil products – 322 km; for natural gas – 1,800 km.
Ports and harbours: Akita, Amagasaki, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mitsushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Toma-komai, Chiba, Hakodate, Hachinohe, Higashi-Hari-ma, Himeji, Hiroshima.
Merchant fleet: total: 630 ships (of 1,000 tons displacement or more) with a total displacement of 11,691,174 gross register tons / 15,484,848 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: bulk carriers – 137, cargo ships – 51, chemical tankers – 15, combined bulk carriers – 22, combined ore and oil carriers – 3, container ships – 22, liquefied gas tankers – 49, passenger ships – 9, cargo/passenger ships 2, oil tankers 194, refrigerated ships 15, ferries 49, coastal passenger ships 6, transport cargo ships 56 (2000 est.).
Airports: 173 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 142; over 3,047 m: 8; from 2438 to 3047 m: 36; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 38; from 914 to 1523 m:30; less than 914 m: 30 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 31; from 914 to 1523 m:4; less than 914 m: 27 (2000 est.). Helipads: 16 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 29,926,614 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 25,876,484 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 765,817 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $43 billion (FY01-02)
Military spending as part of GDP: 0.96% (FY01-02)

International Issues

International problems International disputes: Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and the Habomai group of islands are occupied by the USSR in 1945, now controlled by Russia, disputed by Japan; the Liancourt Rocks (Take-shimaATokdo) are disputed by South Korea; China and Taiwan claim the Senkaku Islands.

Japan Military