Jamaica is Caribbean country. With an area of 10 991 km2 , Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean (after the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola), located 145 kmsouth of Cuba. The main cities are Kingston, the capital, with 594,500 residents (2004) in the metropolitan area, Spanish Town (134,900 residents), Portmore (102,000 residents), Montego Bay (89,200 residents) and May Pen (49 200 residents).
Jamaica brings together a set of geographical features that make it one of the most popular tourist centers in the region. Thus, while the coastal areas are flat, the interior of the island is characterized by the existence of mountainous systems, whose altitude varies between 1500 and 2100 meters (the highest point is Monte Azul with 2 256 meters), and plateaus of calcareous constitution, which justifies the existence of numerous escarpments, depressions and caves. Throughout the island, but especially inland, there is an extremely rich and varied flora, with the coastal plains being used mainly as cultivation areas.
The climate is humid tropical, with the highest rainfall in the northern part of the island.
The Jamaican economy is characterized by its great openness to the outside, given the growing importance of some exportable agricultural products and, above all, tourism. The pressure on the forest, resulting from the expansion of agriculture and livestock, made Jamaica, in the period 1981-1990, to register the highest rate of deforestation in the world. The primary sector is still one of the main supports of the economy: in agriculture, the export of bananas and sugar and its derivatives (rum and molasses) has remained at a good level, with emphasis on the growth verified in the production of citrus fruits, coffee, cocoa, pepper and tobacco; the fishing activity is well structured and profitable. On the other hand, the industrial sector has seen its importance gradually increase, basing its development on two poles: in the mining industry, through the exploration of vast reserves of bauxite and alumina (with a lot of output for export) and limestone, marble and sand (for the glass industry); in the manufacturing industry, textiles, metals and chemicals stand out, as well as companies related to the canning and glass industries. Finally, it is worth highlighting the increasingly important role of tourism in the Jamaican economy, especially with regard to obtaining foreign exchange, sustained, not only by the excellent geographical conditions, but also by the rich and ever-present Jamaican culture. as well as companies related to the canning and glass industries. Finally, it is worth highlighting the increasingly important role of tourism in the Jamaican economy, especially with regard to obtaining foreign exchange, sustained, not only by the excellent geographical conditions, but also by the rich and ever-present Jamaican culture. as well as companies related to the canning and glass industries. Finally, it is worth highlighting the increasingly important role of tourism in the Jamaican economy, especially with regard to obtaining foreign exchange, sustained, not only by the excellent geographical conditions, but also by the rich and ever-present Jamaican culture.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 4.0.
In 2006, it had a population of 2 758 124 residents, estimated to be 3.3 million residents in 2025. The birth and death rates are respectively 20.82% and 6.52%. Average life expectancy is 73.24 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.757 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) is 0.750 (2001). Regarding ethnic composition, blacks represent 75% of the population, followed by mestizos (13%) and Indians (1%). Protestantism (43%) and Catholicism (10%) are the main religions. The official language is English.
When Christopher Columbus arrived on the Island of Jamaica (then calling it Santiago Island) in 1494, he found it inhabited by the Arawak people, residing in it since the 7th century AD. C. However, with the arrival of Spanish colonists from 1509 onwards, the Arawak quickly disappeared as a result, above all, of European diseases, to which they were quite vulnerable. In 1655, the British conquered the island, expelling the Spaniards in 1660. However, England had to deal with the opposition of the former slaves of the Spanish colonists, who took refuge in the interior mountains and to which, later, the slaves who joined they fled English domination. From 1661 to 1670, the island was virtually occupied by pirates with the consent of England, since during that period of time they provided valuable assistance in the defense of the island in the face of successive attacks by Spanish ships. This presence was suppressed with the signing of the Treaty of Madrid (1670), in which Spain recognized England’s sovereignty over Jamaica. From then on, the island quickly became the most valuable colony, through the development of sugar and cocoa production, which included the use of slaves that the British massively transported from Africa. Jamaica’s economic heyday was reached during the war that opposed France to England (1782-1806) and which won. However, with the abolition of slavery in 1807, all the existing farms on the island went into crisis, as the shortage of labor meant a brutal increase in production costs, that were not covered by the drop in prices of sugar and cocoa recorded with the end of the war. This crisis was slowly worsening over the years, until, in 1865, a popular uprising caused violent clashes between the population and the English forces, causing a reinforcement of Power by the British Crown. The new governor, Sir John Peter Grant then initiated a political, administrative and economic restructuring project that put the island back on the development path, highlighting the investment made in banana production, which quickly became the main export product. Political and administrative reforms aimed at the gradual constitution of a representative government that would act under the aegis of the British Crown. However, already in the twentieth century, a feeling of displeasure in the face of English rule began to spread within the Jamaican population, especially from the 1930s, when the great world economic depression began to influence life on the island. This movement of self-determination was the basis of important constitutional changes (in 1944 and 1953) that, first, established an assembly of representatives elected by universal suffrage, and later gave departmental responsibilities to the elected ministers, although they safeguarded the existence of a legislative council and an executive council (the elected ministers were also present), both appointed by the England. And even post-World War II economic development, supported by subsidies from England, failed to prevent Jamaica from proclaiming its independence on January 3, 1958, while being a founding member of the West Indian Federation (WIF). ), a union between several Caribbean islands within the Commonwealth. Norman Manley, leader of the National People’s Party (PNP), was elected prime minister in July 1959,SirAlexander Bustamante, who adopted Jamaica’s withdrawal from the WIF as a primary measure, prompting its dissolution in May and Jamaica’s declaration as an independent state within the Commonwealth on August 6 of that same year. The JLP remained in power until 1972, when Michael Manley, son of Norman Manley and leader of the PNP, won an overwhelming victory. The program of Government of Michael Manley consisted of the introduction of social reforms of democratic characteristics, but these reforms were undermined by the serious economic crisis that, in turn, was responsible for the political approximation between Jamaica and Cuba. This approach went back in 1981, with Edward Seaga, leader of the JLP, as Prime Minister elected in 1980. Seaga favored closer relations with the United States, which became Jamaica’s main trading partner with positive impacts on the country’s economy. However, this development situation was suddenly interrupted in September 1988, with the passage of Hurricane Gilberto, which caused incalculable losses and greater than those recorded in 1980, when Hurricane Allen passed. The 1989 elections restored the PNP to power, with Michael Manley appointed prime minister. Manley would be replaced in the 1993 elections by his party colleague, Percival J. Patterson. After these elections, the JLP announced that it would not take part in future electoral events until the Jamaican electoral system was reformed. For Jamaica democracy and rights, please check localbusinessexplorer.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Jamaica, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Jamaica. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Jamaica
Discover the key cities of Jamaica by browsing a collection of country, political, and shaded relief maps of this Caribbean island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba.
Jamaica – Atlapedia Online
Colorful, graphical map shows the island’s key cities, and towns, plus illustrates water bodies, and surrounding land features.
Jamaica – Caribbean Travel Map
Sharp graphical map makes it easy to see the outline of this small island nation, and to find key cities, and ports. Plus, includes an overview.
Jamaica – Maps.com
Locate two different maps of this island nation in the Caribbean. Includes more versions that are available for purchase.
Jamaica – National Geographic Map Machine
Navigate the contours of the island with zooming, and map-moving features made possible by this satellite-enhanced map.