Economy overview: Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with significant government participation. It is dependent on imports of crude oil, grain, raw materials and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, over the past 20 years Israel has been intensively developing its agriculture and industrial sector. Israel basically satisfies its food needs, excluding grain. Diamonds, high-tech equipment and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) make up the bulk of exports. Israel usually runs a significant current deficit, which is covered by large foreign transfer payments and foreign loans. Approximately half of the external public debt is held by the United States, which is the largest source of economic and military aid. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR brought 750,000 people over the period 1989-99, increasing the number of Israelis originating from the former USSR to 1 million, which is one-sixth of the total population, and bringing scientific research that is very valuable for the future development of the economy. professional resources. This influx, together with the opening of new markets after the end of the Cold War, boosted the Israeli economy, which had grown rapidly in the early 1990s. But growth began to slow in 1996, when the government resorted to tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the positive effects of the influx of emigrants wore off. Growth in 2000 was 5.9%. But the outbreak of Palestinian resistance at the end of September and the fall of the BARAKA government, together with a downturn in the high-tech and tourism sectors, undermined the conditions for growth, and in 2001. See cheeroutdoor.com to know more about Israel Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $110.2 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 5.9% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: Purchasing power parity – $18,900 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 4%; industry: 37%; services: 59% (1999 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 2.8%; top 10% of families: 26.9% (U992).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 0.1% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 2.4 million people (2000 est.).
Employment structure: public service 31.2%, manufacturing industry 20.2%, finance and business 13.1%, trade 12.8%, construction 7.5%, delivery services and other 6.4%, transport, storage and communication enterprises services 6.2%, agriculture and forestry, fisheries 2.6% (1996).
Unemployment rate: 9% (2000 est.).
Budget: revenues: $40 billion; expenditures: $42.4 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: high-tech manufacturing (including avionics, communications equipment, computer-aided design of industrial products, medical electronic equipment), production of wood and paper products, potash and phosphate mining, food, beverage and tobacco production, caustic soda, cement, cutting and diamond polishing.
Growth in industrial production: 7% (2000).
Electricity generation: 35.437 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 99.89%; hydropower: 0.11%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 31.899 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 1.061 megawatt-hours (1999).
Electricity import: 4 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: citrus fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products.
Export: $31.5 billion (free on board, 2000)
Exports: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, chemicals, fabrics and clothing, agricultural products.
Export partners: US 36%, UK 6%, Benelux 5%, Hong Kong 4%, Netherlands 4% (1999).
Imports: $35.1 billion (free on board, 2000)
Imports: raw materials, military equipment, capital goods, rough diamonds, fuel, consumer goods.
Import partners: US 20%, Benelux 11%, Germany 8%, UK 8%, Switzerland 6%, Italy 5% (1999).
External debt: $38 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $1.1 billion from the United States (1999).
Economic Aid Donor:
Currency: New Israeli Shekel.
Currency code: ILS.
Exchange rate: ILS/USD – 4.0810 (December 2000), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 2.8 million (1999).
Mobile cell phones: 2.5 million (1999).
Telephone system: the most developed system in the Middle East, although not the largest; internal: good system of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; international: 3 submarine cables; earth satellite stations: 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean).
Broadcast stations: AM – 23, FM – 15, shortwave – 2 (1998).
Radio receivers: 3.07 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 17 (and 36 low power repeaters) (1995).
Televisions: 1.69 million (1997)
Internet country code: il
Internet Service Providers: 21 (2000).
Number of users: 1 million (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 610 km; with standard gauge: 610 km (1.435 m gauge) (1996).
Roads: total: 15,965 km; paved: 15,965 km (including 56 km of expressways); unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.).
Pipelines: for crude oil – 708 km; for oil products – 290 km; for natural gas – 89 km.
Ports and harbors: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Eilat, Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv.
Merchant fleet: total: 17 vessels (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 631,582 gross register tons / 745,011 long tons of gross tonnage; vessels of different types: container ships – 16, ferries – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 55 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 30; over 3,047 m: 2; from 2438 to 3047 m: 4; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7; from 914 to 1523 m: 10; less than 914 m: 7 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 25; from 1524 to 2437 m:1; from 914 to 1523 m:4; less than 914 m: 20 (2000 est.). Helipads: 2 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: Israel Defense Forces (includes land, sea and air components), Frontline Fighting Youth (Nakhal), Border Guards, Chen (women’s organization); note – historically, there are no separate military branches in Israel.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total military manpower: men aged 15 to 49: 1,522,003; women aged 15 to 49: 1,482,027 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 1,245,973; women aged 15 to 49: 1,208,973 (2001 est.).
Number of persons annually reaching military age: men: 49,206; women: 53,379 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $8.7 billion (1999)
Military spending as part of GDP: 9.4% (1999).
International Issues International Disputes: The West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied territories with a temporary status determined by the Israeli-Palestinian agreement, with a permanent status to be determined through further negotiations; The Golan Heights are occupied by Israel (Lebanon claims the Shaba Farm area of the Golan Heights).
Illicit drugs: increased use of cocaine and heroin is worrying; drugs enter the country from Lebanon and increasingly from Jordan.