Ireland is one of the large islands making up the British archipelago (84,420 km 2 with about 5,120,000 residents), located between 51 ° 26 ‘and 55 ° 22’ lat. N and 5 ° 35 ‘and 10 ° 21’ long. O. They bathe it to the West the Atlantic Ocean, to East the Irish Sea and the two channels, of S. Giorgio, to the SE, and to the North, to the NE, which separate it from Great Britain. Politically it is divided in the First Republic. and in the Ireland of the North.
According to itypeusa, the central part of the island is occupied by a large plain, which faces with a low and uniform coast on the Sea of Ireland, between Dundalk and Dublin, and extends somewhat in the W and SW direction, towards the Bay of Galway and towards the river estuary Shannon, insinuating itself with more or less extended edges also between the reliefs of the northern region. This central plain has an average altitude of around 100m (around the Derg and Ree lakes less than 50m). At the edge of the plain there are some distinct mountain masses. In particular, to the NW are the Derryveagh Mountains (Errigal, 752 m), deeply engraved and jagged by numerous coastal inlets, and to the NE the Antrim Mountains. Between the two reliefs, the Sperrin Mountains (680 m) close the barrier, between which the Bann and Foyle rivers open the way. AS dell’Antrim are the Morne Mountains (852m). Other complicated relief systems occupy the southern part of the island. These systems, divided more or less widely by river incisions or by strips of the central plain, are generally oriented from E to West (Hercynian fold), with the exception of the Wicklow Mountains (Caledonian fold), consisting of granite rocks, which stretch in the NE-SW direction, parallel to the east coast. To the SW, on the Atlantic coast, Carrantuohill (1038m) is Ireland’s highest mountain.
The island is characterized by the oceanic climate, brought by the Atlantic winds which, due to the fragmentation of the mountain systems, are able to penetrate inland. Rain, evenly distributed between the various seasons, is frequent everywhere, but more to the West (Galway, 1250 mm per year) than to the East (Dublin, 740 mm). Temperatures in winter are mild, staying above 0 ° C, while in summer they are generally cool (Dublin: January 5.4 ° C; July 15.8 ° C). These conditions, with the calcareous nature of the soil, are favorable to the prairies, which have allowed the development of the livestock activity, traditional in Ireland.
The rivers, due to the abundance and uniformity of the rains, have a constant regime in every season; given the configuration of the relief, they flow mostly slow, sinuous, frequently expanding into lake basins, a typical element. is rich in lake basins, some in the northern reliefs and remarkable for their beauty, others in the central plain: among the largest, Lough Neagh (400 km2), Lough Corrib (190 km 2), Lough Mask (85 km 2).
Characteristic of the Irish flora is the presence of many species that usually reside in more southern latitudes (Europe central, etc.), which is explained by the mildness of the climate; it is interesting to note that Ireland has various plants in common with the Cantabrian, Portuguese and the flora Azores. The land is mostly occupied by pastures, with rare groups of tree species; in some places the landscape is almost Mediterranean due to the presence of the strawberry tree in showy specimens, mixed with holly, equally arboreal, and oaks, ash trees, ivy, ferns.
The fauna has characteristics common to that of the entire British archipelago. In general, all continental European forms are represented there. It is noteworthy, however, that the number of species of all groups is less than that present in the continental regions of equal extension. Among the Carnivores there are the wolf, the fox (Vulpes crucigera), the otter, some musteles; many rodents, but the beaver is extinct. Among the Ungulates to note Cervus elaphus scoticus. The avifauna is quite rich and consists of species characteristic of central Europe. Terrestrial Insects and Arthropods offer particular zoogeographical interest for the interpretation of the origin of Irish fauna.