Indonesia Military, Economy and Transportation

Indonesia Military

Economy

Economic overview: Indonesia, a multiethnic country, is facing serious economic problems as a result of the spread of separatist movements and poor security in the regions, an underdeveloped legal framework for business activities, corruption, a weak banking system, and tensions with the IMF. Investor confidence remains at a low level, and in such conditions, the creation of new jobs is unlikely. Growth of 4.8% in 2000 is unlikely to be sustained as it was the result of short-term favorable factors, including high world oil prices, a sharp increase in exports of other goods and strong domestic demand for consumer durables. See cheeroutdoor.com to know more about Indonesia Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $654 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 4.8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $2,900 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 21%; industry: 35%; services: 44% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 20% (1998).
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 3.6%; by the top 10% of families: 30.3% (1996).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 9% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 99 million people (1999).
Employment structure: agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.).
Unemployment rate: 15-20% (1998 est.).
Budget: revenues: $26 billion; expenditures: $30 billion including capital investment – NA (2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: oil and natural gas production; production of fabrics, clothing and footwear; mining, production of cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber; production of food products; tourism.
Growth in industrial production: 7.5% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 78.674 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 80.36%; hydropower: 14.63%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 5.01% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 73.167 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 0 kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 0 kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs.
Exports: $64.7 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: oil and gas, plywood, textiles, rubber.
Export partners: Japan 21%, USA 14%, Singapore 10%, South Korea 7%, Netherlands 3%, Australia 3%, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan (1999 est.).
Imports: $40.4 billion (s.i.f., 2000 est.)
Import articles: machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs.
Import partners: Japan 12%, US 12%, Singapore 10%, Germany 6%, Australia 6%, South Korea 5%, Taiwan, China (1999 est.).
External debt: $144 billion (2000 est.) Recipient of economic assistance: $43 billion from IMF programs and other official external sources of funding (1997-2000).
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Indonesian rupiah.
Currency code: IDR.
Exchange rate: IDR/USD -10,000 (January 2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997), 2,342.3 ( 1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year (since 2001, earlier April 1-March 31).

Telecommunications

Telecommunications Telephone lines: 5.588 million (1998).
Mobile cell phones: 1.07 million (1998)
Telephone system: internal communication is mediocre, international communication is good; internal: a microwave communication system and a high-frequency police radio network operate between the islands; internal satellite communication system; international: ground satellite stations -2 Intelsat (1 Indian and 1 Pacific oceans).
Broadcast stations: AM – 678, FM – 43, shortwave – 82 (1998).
Radio receivers: 31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 41 (1999).
Televisions: 13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code: id
Internet service providers: 24 (2000).
Number of users: 400,000 (2000).

Transport

Transport Railways: total: 6,458 km; narrow gauge: 5,961 km (1.067 m gauge) (101 km electrified; 101 km dual track); 497 km (0.750 m gauge) (1995).
Roads: total: 342,700 km; coated: 158,670 km; unpaved: 184,030 km (1997 est.)
Waterways: total 21,579 km; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Su-lawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 2,505 km; for oil products – 456 km; for natural gas – 1,703 km (1989).
Ports and harbors: Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya, Ujungpandang, Chilachap, Cirebon.
Merchant navy: in total: 609 vessels (of 1,000 tons displacement or more) with a total displacement of 2,698,157 gross register tons / 3,723,833 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: dry cargo ships – 36, cargo ships – 357, chemical tankers – 10, container ships – 25, liquefied gas tankers – 3, livestock ships – 1, passenger ships – 7, cargo-passenger ships – 14, oil tankers – 117;
Airports: 453 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 136; over 3,047 m: 4; from 2438 to 3047 m:12; from 1524 to 2437 m: 39; from 914 to 1523 m:44; less than 914 m: 37 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 317; from 1524 to 2437 m:6; from 914 to 1,523 m: 28; less than 914 m: 283 (2000 est.). Helipads: 4 (2000 est.).

Armed forces

Branches of the armed forces: ground forces, navy, air force, marines.
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 64,046,049 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 37,418,755 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 2,263,706 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $1 billion (FY98-99)
Military spending as part of GDP: 1.3% (FY98-99)

International Issues

International problems International disputes: the dispute with Malaysia over the islands of Sipadan and Ligitan.
Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis, mainly for the domestic market; the role of Indonesia as a transit point for heroin from the Golden Triangle is possible.

Indonesia Military