India, a federal state in South Asia, the most populous state in the world after China.
Land nature: In the north, the mountainous regions of the Karakoram and the Himalayas divide the country, the river plains of the Indus and the Ganges join to the south as well as the highlands of Dekhan, which is separated from the Indus-Ganges plain by hills and smaller mountain ranges. The eastern and western Ghats (coastal mountains) form the steep drop of the highlands from Dekhan to the poorly indented coasts of the front Indian peninsula.
The climate is tropical in the south, subtropical-temperate in the north. The population is divided into numerous ethnic and tribal groups. In addition to the official language Hindi and the associated language English, there are 14 regional languages recognized in the constitution (including Bengali, Gutjarati, Tamil).
Economy, transport: In agriculture, the main products are rice, wheat, millet, sugar cane (India is the world’s largest producer), cotton, jute, tea (30% of the world’s tea harvest), coffee, rubber, tobacco, pepper. Although India is an agricultural country, wheat and rice have to be imported to meet demand. In terms of mineral resources, India offers coal, oil, iron, manganese and copper ores, bauxite and mica. When it comes to export goods, precious and semi-precious stones are at the top. With its industry, India is (due to its size) one of the ten largest industrial powers in the world, but in terms of gross national income it is one of the poorer countries. – India has the largest, but not the densest railway network in Asia. Major ports are Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Cochin.
History: Around the middle of the 2nd millennium BC BC Indo-European tribes (Aryans) immigrated from the northwest into the Indian subcontinent and subjugated the indigenous population. Around 1000 BC The system of Box. With the appearance of Buddha, the first recorded significant personality, ended around 500 BC. The Vedic period (Weda). Under Ashoka (273 / 268–231 BC) the empire of the Maurya dynasty, which helped Buddhism spread, comprised a large part of northern India. An orderly administration and spiritual and religious tolerance determined the state.
With the fall of the Gupta dynasty, under which Buddhism dated Hinduism was ousted, the subcontinent split up into a multitude of individual states around AD 500. From the 8th century onwards, with the invasion of the Arabs, the spread of Islam began, which was able to establish itself towards the end of the 12th century. In 1398 the Mongol ruler Timur (1336-1405), also known in the west as Tamerlane, conquered large parts of India. Babur (1483–1530), a descendant of Timur, founded the Islamic Mughal dynasty, which nominally remained in power until the middle of the 19th century.
In 1498 Vasco da Gama landed on the southwest coast of India; Colonization began at the beginning of the 16th century. First the Portuguese established trading bases, then the Dutch, who were ousted by the merchants of the British East India Company, founded in 1600. In 1818 the rule of Great Britain had prevailed in India; an uprising in 1857/58 was unsuccessful. In 1857 the British East India Company was dissolved and India was now administered directly by a viceroy. In 1877 Queen Victoria assumed the title of “Empress of India”.
After the First World War, self-employment began, which finally led to the goal under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1947 India became an independent republic under the Commonwealth; the predominantly Islamic areas were declared an independent state of Pakistan, with the territorial claims of both countries in the mountainous region of Kashmir repeatedly leading to bloody disputes. In 1966 Indira Gandhi became Prime Minister; she was murdered by Sikhs in 1984, as was her subsequent son, Rajiv Gandhi, in 1991. The domestic political situation of the most populous democracy in the world has been characterized by numerous unrest in recent years. Partly as a result of the differences between Hindus and Muslims, z. T. Sikhs) broke out. In 2013, a border agreement was signed with the People’s Republic of China, which obliged both countries on the controversial Himalayan border to be extremely cautious.
The first trade union in India was founded in 1890 among the textile workers in Bombay (now Mumbai) by social reformers based on the British trade union movement; the first national headquarters, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), was established in 1920. The unions received legal protection in 1926 through laws based on the British model (e.g. impunity for legitimate trade union activity). After independence in 1947, the unions split into various party lines. The most important umbrella organizations include: Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC; founded 1947; affiliated with INC), Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS; founded 1955; related to BJP), Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS; founded 1948; socialist-oriented), Center of Indian Trade Unions (CITU; founded in 1970; related to CPIM). Visit themakeupexplorer for Trade Unions in Southern Asia.
India is divided into 29 states, 6 union territories and the capital city of Delhi. The youngest state is Telangana which was only formed in 2014 when it was separated from Andhra Pradesh. The states, each headed by a governor appointed by the president for 5 years, have the right to self-government. In every state there is a legislature resulting from general elections (parliament; legislative period 5 years), which usually consists of one chamber, in some states, analogous to the Union, of two chambers. The executive is in the hands of a state government chaired by a chief minister. The Union territories, which are directly administered by the federal government, are each governed by an administrator (or lieutenant governor) appointed by the president. Middle and lower administrations are largely the responsibility of the states. A certain degree of uniformity is ensured by the joint cadre of civil servants of the Union and the states, above all by the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). He provides the leading officer of the local administrative unit, the district taken over from British times.
Administrative division in India
|Administrative division (2011)|
|State / Union Territory / Capital Territory||Area (in km 2)||Population (in millions)||Residents(per km 2)||Capital / administrative seat|
|Andhra Pradesh 1)||275 045||84.67||308||Hyderabad|
|Arunachal Pradesh||83 743||1.38||17th||Itanagar|
|Bihar||94 163||103.80||1 102||Patna|
|Himachal Pradesh||55 673||6.86||123||Simla|
|Jammu and Kashmir||101 387||12.55||124||Srinagar|
|Madhya Pradesh||308 209||72.60||236||Bhopal|
|Odisha 2)||155 707||41.95||269||Bhubaneswar|
|Tamil Nadu||130 058||72.14||555||Chennai|
|Uttarakhand 3)||53 484||10.12||189||Dehradun|
|Uttar Pradesh||243 286||199.58||828||Lucknow|
|West Bengal||88 752||91.35||1 029||Kolkata|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||8 249||0.38||46||Port Blair|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||491||0.34||698||Silvassa|
|Daman and Diu||112||0.24||2 169||Daman|
|Delhi||1 483||16.75||11 297||Delhi|
|Pondicherry 4)||479||1.24||2 598||Pondicherry|
|1) 2014 outsourcing of Telangana (114 840 km 2 , 35.2 million residents)2) Orissa until 2011
3) Uttaranchal until 2006
4) until 2006 Pondicherry