Haiti is a Caribbean country. Haiti occupies the western part of the island of Hispaniola, one of the Greater Antilles of the Caribbean Sea, and covers an area of 27 750 .2. It borders the Dominican Republic to the east and is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea to the west and south. The main cities are Port-au-Prince, the capital, with 1 156 400 residents (2004), Carrefour (399 100 residents), Delmas (338 700 residents), Cap-Haïtien (129 500 residents) And Pétionville ( 98 100 residents).
The Haitian landscape is dominated by a succession of mountainous systems cut by fertile and densely populated plains.
The climate is humid tropical, although it has its own characteristics resulting from the altitude and the strong maritime influence.
Agriculture is the main economic activity and its main products for export are coffee, sugar cane and cocoa. However, following the population increase registered in the country, farmers have increased the production of corn, rice, fruit and vegetables.
Fishing activity is of little relevance given the state of underdevelopment in which it finds itself. As for the industrial sector, this also reflects the country’s economic situation, failing to start higher income levels, due not only to the small market that Haiti represents, but also to the competition that products imported from the United States of America and the Republic Dominican, of superior quality, make it. Still, industries dedicated to the processing of electronic components and textiles are able to survive at the expense of the flow that the North American market provides. Haiti’s main trading partners are the United States of America, France, Germany and Japan.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita(metric tons, 1999), is 0.2.
The population was, in 2006, 8 308 504 residents. The birth and death rates are respectively 36.44% and 12.17%. Average life expectancy is 53.23 years. It is estimated that, in 2025, the population will be 9 550 000 residents. In ethnic terms, blacks make up 95% of the population. The most representative religions are Catholicism (69%) and Protestantism (24%). The official language is Haitian Creole and French.
The island, which includes Haiti and the Dominican Republic, was discovered by Christopher Columbus on December 6, 1492, then receiving the name Hispaniola island. Until the western third of the island was ceded to France (renamed Santo Domingo) in 1697, the Spanish presence was characterized by the oppression exerted on the island’s natives, either using them as slaves or exterminating them by war , repopulating the island with African slaves. The use of these slaves was continued by the French, who made the island the most prosperous colony in the New World, thanks to profitable explorations of sugar, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In 1791, with the advent of the French Revolution, the slaves (who constituted more than 90% of the population) revolted, achieving independence for the entire island in 1804, being then named Haiti. From this date onwards, there was a succession of revolutions and coups d’état that consecutively brought dictatorial regimes to power, a situation that destabilized the region, given that there were several Haitian attempts to annex the Dominican Republic. In 1915, the United States occupied Haiti under the pretext of urgent humanitarian intervention. Until 1934, North Americans undertook a public works program based on forced labor, which was achieved through a policy that was unfavorable to the social pretensions of the Haitians, that is, removing them from political, administrative, economic and social power. Although the withdrawal of the Americans took place in August 1934, the truth is that the United States maintained indirect control over the country until 1947. With the departure of the North Americans came a new period of governmental instability, which ended in September 1957 with the election of François Duvalier for the presidency of the Republic. Duvalier then implemented a policy at all levels of repression, even constituting a private army whose sole purpose was to terrorize the population. Despite external pressures and social discontent, François Duvalier remained in power until his death in 1971, succeeding his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, who, while maintaining absolute political power, lessened repression to the point of get foreign aid, especially from the United States. On February 7, 1986, Jean-Claude Duvalier was deposed by the military, who took advantage of a favorable situation caused by popular discontent. The first free elections in the history of Haiti took place in 1990, leading to the presidency of the Republic Jean-Bertrand Aristide, who, a month later, saw his supporters win the legislative elections. However, in September 1991, a military junta deposed Aristide, replacing him with Brigadier Raoul Cédras. As a result, the United States imposed a political and economic embargo whose results were diminished by the existing smuggling with the Dominican Republic. Under the aegis of the UN and OAS (Organization of American States), the United States negotiated Aristide’s return to power, but the process was blocked by the Haitian military. Only when the United Nations authorized a hypothetical invasion of Haiti by the United States was it possible for the US peacekeeping mission to unblock the negotiations, allowing Aristide to return to the country (October 15, 1994),
In the 1995 elections, Aristide was unable to run, according to the Constitution in force in the country that only allows one term. Therefore, René Prével becomes president of the country, promising the country’s economic development. However, during his tenure several strikes, usually caused by wage dissatisfaction, were carried out, denoting the economic crisis that was plaguing the country. Violence increased and there were no structures to combat the situation. The government instability also contributed to this, with the resignation, in 1997, of Prime Minister Rosny Smarth and the rejection by the parliament of the first two candidates for the position chosen by the president. Jacques-Edouard Alexis (the third name appointed by the president) finally held the position when Prével took the attitude of electing him by decree, not recognizing parliamentary power. New elections for parliament were requested by the prime minister. In 2000, the party then in government, Famni Lavalas, was re-elected by a majority. The following year, Aristide ran again for the presidency of the Republic and won the elections, which were immediately contested by the opposition, a situation for which no immediate solution was found. In the same year, the National Palace was the target of an attack, which caused fatalities but to which the president survived. situation for which no immediate solution was found. In the same year, the National Palace was the target of an attack, which caused fatalities but to which the president survived. situation for which no immediate solution was found. In the same year, the National Palace was the target of an attack, which caused fatalities but to which the president survived. For Haiti democracy and rights, please check localbusinessexplorer.
In February 2002, then Prime Minister Cherestal resigned and was replaced by Yvon Neptune the following month. The political and tension situation worsened when the rebel group in the North, led by Guy Philippe (former police commissioner), decided to act by attacking various parts of the country, with the aim of pressuring Aristide to resign. Meanwhile, the population received help from the WFP (World Food Program) to face the situation of misery. In early 2004, Aristide called for the mobilization of his supporters in order to guarantee his mandate until the end, promising to end misery and restore peace. The country witnessed several demonstrations in this regard, but the pressure, the attacks by the rebels, the climate of violence and looting that were generated as a result of political instability and the economic crisis led to President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announcing his resignation to February 29, 2004 and its consequent departure from the country.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Haiti, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Haiti. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Haiti
View country, topographic, political, and shaded relief maps of Haiti, lying west of Dominican Republic. View maps of Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien, and Ile de la Tortue.
Haiti – Caribbean Travel Guide
Less than a hundred miles from the shores of the United States, check out a clear and concise graphical map.
Haiti – Maps.com
Take a look at two different maps of this country in the Caribbean. Also provides more versions that are available for sale.
Haiti – National Geographic Map Machine
Peruse a map of Haiti created by combining satellite imagery with map editing. Allows for printing, and zooming.
Haiti – WorldAtlas.com
Look at a map of the Caribbean country, and read facts and figures about its geography, government, population, and economy.
MSN Encarta Maps – Haiti
View a close-up map offering both the political, and physical characteristics of the country.