Georgia Military, Economy and Transportation

Georgia Military, Economy and Transportation


Economy overview: The Georgian economy has traditionally been based on Black Sea tourism, growing citrus fruits, tea and grapes, mining manganese and copper; as well as the small industrial sector of winemaking, metals, machinery, chemicals and textiles. The country imports most of the energy it needs, including natural gas and petroleum products. The only domestic energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage caused to the economy by the civil conflict, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and the World Bank, has significantly improved the state of the economy since 1995, achieving accelerated GDP growth and lower inflation. A significant budget deficit persists due to poor tax discipline. Georgia continues to suffer from energy shortages, but the distribution network was privatized in 1998. and supply is constantly improving. Georgia’s hopes for further recovery in the long term are linked to the development of an international transport corridor through the key Black Sea ports of Poti and Batumi. Rising trade deficits, tax evasion and corruption, and political instability cloud the short-term economic outlook.┬áSee to know more about Georgia Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $22.8 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 1.9% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity – $4,600 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 32%; industry: 23%; services: 45% (1999 est.).
Proportion of population below the poverty line: 60% (1999 est.).
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: for the poorest 10% of households: n/a; by top 10% of households: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 4.1% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 3.08 million people (1997).
Employment structure: industry and construction 20%, agriculture and forestry 40%, services 40% (1999 est.).
Unemployment rate: 14.9% (1999 est.).
Budget: revenues: $437 million; expenses: $626 million, including capital investments – $60 million (1999).
Spheres of economy: steel production, aircraft industry, production of machine tools, electric trains, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood, wine.
Growth in industrial production: -0.3% (1998 est.).
Electricity generation: 7.975 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 20.38%; hydropower: 79.62%; nuclear fuel: 0%; other: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 7.117 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 850 million kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 550 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: citrus fruits, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; cattle.
Export: $372 million (2000 est.)
Exports: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products; various types of machines and metals; chemicals; fuel re-export; textile.
Export partners: Russia 19%, Turkey 16%, Azerbaijan 8%, Armenia 6% (1999).
Imports: $898 million (2000 est.)
Import items: fuel, grain and other foodstuffs, machinery and components, transport equipment.
Import partners: EU 22%, Russia 19%, Turkey 12%, US 12% (1999).
External debt: $1.9 billion (2000) Economic aid recipient: $212.7 million (1995)
Donor of economic assistance:
Currency: lari.
Currency code: GEL.
Exchange rate: GEL/USD – 1.9798 2000), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 1.2975 (1997), 1.2628 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.


Telecommunications Telephone lines: 620,000 (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 30,000 (1997).
Telephone system: internal: local – there are cellular networks in Tbilisi and Kutaisi; in cities 20 telephones per 100 inhabitants; in rural areas 4 telephones per 100 inhabitants; long-distance communication – fiber optic line connects Tbilisi with Kutaisi; nationwide paging service; international: Georgia and Russia are building a fiber optic line from Poti to Sochi (Russia); at present, international communication is carried out using microwave transmitters, land lines and satellite through a switch in Moscow; international e-mail and telex services are available.
Broadcast stations: AM -7, FM -12, shortwave – 4 (1998).
Radio receivers: 3.02 million (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 12 (and repeaters) (1998).
Televisions: 2.57 million (1997)
Internet Country Code: ge
Internet Service Providers: 6 (2000).
Number of users: 20,000 (2000).


Transport Railways: total: 1,583 km for public transport; excluding industrial lines; broad gauge: 1,583 km (1.520 m gauge) (1993).
Roads: total: 33,900 km; paved: 29,500 km (these roads are considered to be paved, some are paved and others are gravel and can be used in all weather conditions); unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads become unusable in rainy weather) (1990 est.).
Pipelines: for crude oil – 370 km; for oil products – 300 km; for natural gas -440 km (1992).
Ports and harbours: Batumi, Poti, Sukhumi.
Merchant navy: total: 37 ships (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 131,316 gross register tons / 190,289 long tons of gross tonnage; different types of ships: bulk carriers – 3, cargo ships – 25, chemical tankers – 2, container ships – 2, oil tankers – 4, ferries – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 31 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 16; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m: 8; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2; from 914 to 1523 m:2; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 15; from 2438 to 3047 m:1; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4; from 914 to 1523 m:4; less than 914 m: 6 (2000 est.).

Armed Forces

Branches of the armed forces: ground forces, navy, air force, air defense forces, national guard, security forces (internal and border troops).
Enlistment age: 18 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 1,296,199 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men 15 to 49 pets: 1,024,574 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 41,561 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $23 million (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 0.59% (2000).

International Issues

International issues International disputes: no.
Illicit drugs: limited production of marijuana and opium poppy, mainly for domestic consumption; used as a transit point for opiates transported from Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia.

Georgia Military