Finland has been inhabited for 9000 years, with the Lapões being the first to settle in this country, more precisely in the North, while the Ugro-Fineses occupy the South of Finland three thousand years later. In the Christian era, Finland began to suffer Swedish influence even before the Viking period (8th to 11th centuries), becoming more intense from the 12th century, when Sweden, under papal authorization, started a series of crusades that , in addition to conquering Finnish territory, their ultimate objective is to prevent Russia’s influence and de facto presence in this territory. Thus, after many military advances and retreats, it was not until 1323 that Sweden, through the Treaty of Pähkinäsaari (now Petrokrepost), secured Finland as part of its kingdom.
However, Finland’s life under Swedish jurisdiction was quite difficult, as, over the centuries, Finns found themselves involved, not only in the countless internal disputes between Swedish nobles, but also in troubled Swedish foreign policy, especially in successive ones existing conflicts with Russia, a country with long-standing territorial claims to Finland. This last aspect takes on more serious contours during the 18th century, when successive wars between the two countries put Finland in permanent instability and insecurity, even being occupied by Russia between 1713 and 1721. This situation led to an increase among Finns. anti-Sweden spirit, culminating in an agreement between Russia and Finland established in 1809 (Treaty of Hamina), in which, under the protection of Tsar Alexander I.
The Russian period was characterized by considerable economic development, which, however, did not cover the entire vast rural population. On the other hand, the existing bilingual framework in Finland (Swedish was the language authorized in the administrative, economic and educational circles) established a division between the most favored and the least favored classes. This situation aroused a strong reaction from the Finns since the publication in Finnish of any work except for those that favored religious and economic edification was prohibited. It was then that many of the defenders of the Finnish language, especially men of the arts, started a process that was simultaneously creative and the collection of Finnish works (a process in which the celebrated epic work Calévala stands out), so that, in 1902, the two languages.
Russia’s respect for Finnish constitutional autonomy (which allowed for the establishment of its own monetary, legal and military system) ended on February 15, 1889, when Tsar Nicholas II published a manifesto in which he instituted restrictive powers over laws issued Finnish Parliament. With this measure, Nicholas II satisfied the claims of Russian nationalists, initiating a process of Russification of Finnish society. However, the Finnish parties (mainly the Marxist-inspired Social Democratic Party), taking advantage of Russia’s internal instability in the early years of the 20th century, organized a general strike that, despite some negative reaction on the part of Nicholas II, forced, for its impact, to carry out an unprecedented parliamentary reform (20 July 1906), Parliament started to consist of only one Chamber (instead of the four chambers previously existing) and to be elected by universal suffrage. The following years, and after the first elections in 1907 (won by the SDP), were marked by consecutive parliamentary dissolutions ordered by Russia, whose parliament (Duma) would ultimately be responsible, in 1910, for Finnish legislative initiatives.
The First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were two historical facts that paved the way for Finland towards independence. First, because the independence movement found in Germany an ally in its aspirations; later, taking advantage of the Russian internal instability caused by the revolutionary process, a Finnish government coalition formed in the meantime took legislative responsibility for the country (July 1917), an initiative that led to the proclamation of independence on December 6, 1917, which was recognized by Lenine on the last day of that year. However, the first months of independence were, for Finland, of great instability, since the SDP, inspired by the Russian revolutionary current, he obtained control by force of Helsinki and the industrial regions of the South by force (28 January 1918), provoking a counteroffensive on the part of the conservatives who had the strong support of the German army, obtaining the victory over the revolutionaries in late May. The next problem was deciding between the monarchy or the republic as Finland’s statute, a decision that ended up being consensual among all parties in choosing the republican regime, as stipulated in the Constitution approved on July 17, 1919, which preceded the election of first Finnish president, Kaarlo Juho Stählberg.
Over the years, the development of Finnish democracy has been faced with a series of obstacles that, although they did not imply periods as unstable as those seen in 1918, managed to disturb the normal institutional functioning. At the domestic level, most of the problems stemmed from the cleavage that occurred in the meantime reformed SDP, which consisted of the departure of the most left-wing elements to form the Labor Party, a party that was nothing more than an iron forehead of the Finnish Communist Party, founded in 1918 and since then based in Moscow. This communist growth was countered by the Lapua movement (Northern Finland), which, with the support of conservatives, started a series of attacks and persecutions against communist targets, actions complemented by a law passed by the Finnish Parliament in 1930 that banned all communist activities, as well as the right to vote. At the external level, Finnish diplomacy dealt mainly with the following two problems: the definition of the eastern border with Russia, resolved with the Treaty of Tartu (1920), which granted, in the North of the border, a road towards the Arctic Ocean; and dispute over sovereignty over the Aland Islands between Finland and Sweden (which had occupied the islands during the Finnish civil war), a dispute resolved by the Society of Nations in favor of Finland in 1921. that granted, in the North of the border, a road towards the Arctic Ocean; and dispute over sovereignty over the Aland Islands between Finland and Sweden (which had occupied the islands during the Finnish civil war), a dispute resolved by the Society of Nations in favor of Finland in 1921. that granted, in the North of the border, a road towards the Arctic Ocean; and dispute over sovereignty over the Aland Islands between Finland and Sweden (which had occupied the islands during the Finnish civil war), a dispute resolved by the Society of Nations in favor of Finland in 1921.
The Second World War was used by the USSR to obtain advantages in its territorial claims. Thus, in October 1939, under the pretext of defending Leningrad, the USSR demands from Finland part of the Karelian isthmus, the Hanko naval base and some islands in the Gulf of Finland. And in the face of the Finnish refusal, the USSR launched an attack on 30 November 1939 that would lead to the signing of the Moscow Treaty on 12 March 1940, the date on which Finland delivers a vast area of the south-east of the territory. In December of that year, Risto Ryti assumed the presidency of the Republic, being the protagonist of the approach to Nazi Germany before and during the Russo-Germanic war (1941-44). By inflicting successive defeats on the German army, the USSR advances Finnish territory, which was the reason for the resignation of Risto Ryti,
After the Second World War, Finland managed to strengthen a spirit of national stability, as evidenced by the fact that Urho Kekkonen was elected president successively from 1956 until 1981, the year in which he retired for health reasons. The success of this stability is mainly due to the strong economic development of the country, which, under the need to satisfy the war indemnities, restructured its economy, which now has industry as its fundamental sector. And it was thanks to this favorable situation that Finland was able to easily overcome the sporadic government crises, due to the impossibility of having a majority party among the countless ones in Finland.
Externally, Finland also established a climate of trust with its neighbors, although the relationship with the USSR was always surrounded by precautions. In 1948, the two countries signed the Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Agreement, which lasted until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Even so, there were periods when relations cooled, or because there was a momentary growth in Finland of an anti-Soviet spirit , or because Soviet foreign policy itself negatively influenced the Finnish position as the westernmost country in Eastern Europe. On the other hand, Finland has established strong ties of political, economic and social cooperation with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), allowing the region to be strengthened. For Finland democracy and rights, please check intershippingrates.
The Europeanization of Finland began with the country’s entry into the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1986, culminating in its accession to the European Union in 1995, after a referendum (16 October 1994), the results of which were favorable to the policy followed by the President of the Republic, Martti Ahtisaari, of the SDP. At this time, Finland had an average inflation rate of 2%, however, facing a high unemployment rate (close to 20%) and a huge economic deficit (State debts represented 60% of GDP).
In 2003, Finland, having the president of the Republic as Mrs. Tarja Halonen, is considered one of the most competitive countries in the world, being also evaluated, among 133 countries, as the least corrupt.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Finland, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Finland. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Finland
Browse a collection of country, political and shaded relief maps of Finland, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia.
Expedia.com – Finland Map
Find an interactive map that allows users to scan and zoom different regions. Includes links to travel information.
Finland – Atlapedia Online
Offers two excellent maps for viewing, one political and the other physical. Plus, an in-depth overview with country facts and figures.
Finland – InfoPlease.com Map
View a medium-sized, high quality graphical map of Finland that simply pinpoints the locations of key towns and cities. Print and use to study.
Finland – Merriam-Webster Atlas
Preview a detailed map of this northern European country, plus diagrams, country facts, a historical summary and a flag icon.
Finland – National Geographic
Satellite imaging and political map-making create a zoomable map of this European country, with cities, water ways and physical features.
Finland – Regional Map
Clickable map of Finland is sectioned into the country’s five main regions. Visitors can view larger maps easily and find relevant information.