Formerly a Spanish colony, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea is located on the West African coast, being formed by two zones: a continental area called the Rio Muni, with a rectangular shape, bordering the north with Cameroon and the east and south with the Gabon and a group of five islands – Bioco, Corisco, Greater Elobey, Little Elobey and Ano Bom. It has a total area of 28,051 km2. The main cities are Malabo, the capital and located on the island of Bioco, with 101 200 residents (2004), Bata, the administrative capital of the mainland, with 82 300 residents, Ela-Nguema (6200 residents) And Campo Yaunde (5200 hab.).
From a west-east perspective, the relief of the Rio Muni region is in the form of a staircase.
The main island, Bioco, is of volcanic origin, as can be seen by the presence of three extinct volcanoes, therefore having an extremely rich soil and a very rugged topography, which makes maritime accessibility difficult, with Malabo being the only relative port. viability.
The fact that it is a few kilometers from the equator influences the climate of Equatorial Guinea, characterized by a constant cloudiness, high temperatures and high levels of precipitation, with a greater incidence on the coast. It should be noted, however, that there are dry seasons. On the continent, this time is recorded in the months of July and August, while in Bioco Island this happens between the months of November and March.
Agriculture and forestry are the main sectors of the economy. The main agricultural products are cocoa, coffee and bananas. The wood is mainly obtained from forests on the mainland.
The industry is scarce, being limited to the processing of cocoa and coffee. Fishing activity is being carried out by Spain, Nigeria and Morocco, while mining is practically nil, although oil deposits have already been found and exploitable quantities of gold, iron, manganese and uranium are considered to exist. Equatorial Guinea’s main trading partners are Cameroon, the United States of America, Spain and France.
Environmental indicator: the value of carbon dioxide emissions, per capita (metric tons, 1999), is 1.5.
This country has 540 109 residents (2006). The birth and death rates are respectively 35.59% and 15.06%. Average life expectancy is 49.54 years. The value of the Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.664 and the value of the Gender-adjusted Development Index (IDG) was not assigned (2001).
The history of Equatorial Guinea goes back to 1471, when the Portuguese navigator Fernão Pó discovered the island of Bioco (which for a long time was known by the discoverer’s name). The island of Ano Bom was discovered on a New Year’s Day, between the years 1472 and 1475. The Treaty of Tordesillas granted Portugal the exclusive right to explore Africa, therefore, inherently, in Equatorial Guinea. However, in 1778, Portugal ceded to Spain the islands of Ano Bom and Fernão Pó, as well as the continental territory between the Ogooué and Niger rivers. However, a yellow fever epidemic completely decimated the Spaniards living there, causing Spain, in 1781, to withdraw from the islands, not even exploring the continent. For Equatorial Guinea democracy and rights, please check getzipcodes.
With the abolition of slavery, England, which considered the island of Fernão Pó a strategic point in the control of slave routes in the Gulf of Guinea, began, in the second decade of the 19th century, a peaceful occupation (and allowed by Spain) of the current Equatorial Guinea, first on its islands, then on the continent. However, in 1843 the British sold all of their properties to the Baptist missionaries, who would see, in the following year, the Spaniards committed to carrying out the occupation, especially on the island of Fernão Pó. In 1858, the missionaries were expelled and it was only in 1877 that the first Spanish exploration took place on the mainland. Spanish Guinea was to become a penitentiary for Cubans in 1879, assuming itself as the last Spanish possession in Africa in 1898, although it was only after the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) that it received the most attention from Spain. Later, in 1959, the region was divided into two provinces, each with a civil governor, given natural civil rights equal to those of the Spanish. In 1963, through a plebiscite, economic and administrative autonomy was granted to the two provinces, which assumed the name of Equatorial Guinea.
The independence process was considerably quick, taking shape at the end of 1967. At the beginning of the following year, Spain suspended political control and, through action by the Organization of African Unity, a referendum was held on 11 August 1968 which approved the new Constitution. In September parliamentary elections were held and on October 12 of that year independence was proclaimed.
The 1971 presidential elections brought Francisco Macías Nguema to power, who, in 1972, passed a new constitution that guaranteed absolute political powers, governed until 1979, when his grandson, Lieutenant Colonel Teodoro Mbasogo, overthrew the regime. With a less oppressive constitution, instituted in 1982, the country began to open itself up to foreign investments, ensuring prospects for economic and social development. However, the 1993 elections, won by the ruling party, the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea, were contested by international observers, including the governments of the United States of America and Spain, leading to a cut in foreign aid by these countries, the which constituted a severe setback for Mbasogo’s policy.
- Countryaah.com: Offers a full list of airports in the country of Equatorial Guinea, sorted by city location and acronyms.
- Abbreviationfinder.org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Equatorial Guinea. Listed by popularity.
1UpTravel.com – Maps of Equatorial Guinea
Presents a collection of country, political and shaded relief maps of Equatorial Guinea in western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon.
Newafrica.com – Maps of Equatorial Guinea
Check out the administrative, regional and an overview maps of this western African country.
University of Texas Library – Equatorial Guinea
Check out the shaded relief map of this western African country.