English Arts Part VI

English Arts 6

Handicrafts and arts and crafts: Under the influence of J. Ruskin and Pugin, W. Morris sought a renewal of handicrafts (Arts and Crafts Movement). His goals were material authenticity, material-appropriate processing and practical design. C. Dresser was the first designer to create objects made of ceramics and metal that were suitable for the manufacture and material. A. H. Mackmurdo was a forerunner of Art nouveau with his designs for textiles and book design. C. R. Mackintoshinfluenced the German and v. a. the Austrian Art Nouveau.

Photography: W. H. F. Talbot, one of the inventors of photography, published the first book illustrated with photographs in 1843 (“The pencil of nature”). The works of D. O. Hill, R. Adamson, and Julia Margaret Cameron are among the most significant achievements in portrait photography in the 19th century. The writer L. Carroll created numerous photographs of children, some of which were first published towards the end of the 19th century. E. Muybridge’s importance lies in his photographic studies of motion sequences in humans and animals. R. Fenton became famous for a photo report on the Crimean War (published 1855/56).

Modern and present

Architecture: The architecture of the first decades of the 20th century initially adhered to the historicizing vocabulary of forms even after the First World War, as was the case with the building of the garden cities of Letchworth (1903 ff.) And Welwyn Garden City (1920 ff.). The outstanding architect of this time was E. Lutyens (Britannica House in London, 1920–24). In the 1920s and 30s, influences from French Art Deco, German Expressionism, and German and Dutch functionalism were absorbed. This tendency became more prevalent after the Second World War. Exemplary settlement types have been developed in Great Britain on the basis of progressive urban planning since the 1950s, and pioneering solutions have also been found in other areas, especially school and university building. One of the starting points was brutalism (Hunstanton School in Norfolk, 1949–54, by A. and P. Smithson).

In the 1960s, the Archigram group experimented with science fiction projects. With its technical design language, it has had an impact up to the present day, especially on R. Rogers (Center Georges Pompidou in Paris, 1971-77, with R. Piano; high-tech architecture of the London broadcasting center Channel Four, 1994; Millennium Dome in Greenwich, 1997-99; Terminal 5 of Heathrow Airport in London, 2002–07) and Lord N. Foster (high-tech glass building for Willis, Faber & Dumas in Ipswich, 1975–79; Renault Distribution Center in Swindon, 1981–83; administration building of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation in Hong Kong, completed 1979–86; terminal hall for Stansted Airport in Greater London, 1981–91).

According to ezinesports.com, excellent examples of housing developments include: the settlement in Runcorn New Town (1968-74) by J. Stirling and the settlement Byker in Newcastle upon Tyne (1969-80) by R. Erskine, for the school and university building the University of East Anglia in Norwich (1962-68) by D. Lasdun and Queen’s College at Oxford (1966–71) by J. Stirling. According to Stirling’s plans, a.o. 1982–85 the extension of the Tate Gallery, today Tate Britain (“Clore Gallery”), in London. The Lisson Art Gallery in London (1991–93) by Tony Fretton shows the beginnings of a puristic design language. Elaborate office buildings and high-rise office buildings were built in the course of the building boom of the 1980s, whereby v. a. Ian Ritchie with its light, elegant low-rise building (Office building 8, Stockley, Business Park, 1988–90) and Michael Hopkins (Shad Thames, London 1990–91) stand out. Erskine’s office building “The Ark” (1991) was a novel solution in terms of its ecological orientation. Terry Farrell (* 1938) is one of the best-known London architects with post-modern urban buildings (AM-TV main building; Midland Bank, Fenchurch Street branch; Embankment Place). The following are to be highlighted in terms of public buildings: the extension for the Royal Opera House by Jeremy Dixon (* 1939), N. Grimshaw’s new concourse for London’s Waterloo Station (1994), the New Art Gallery in Walsall (2000) by the London architecture firm Caruso St John and the Tate expanded by the Swiss by converting London’s Bankside Power Station into the Tate Modern (opened in 2000) Architectural firm Herzog & de Meuron. Remarkable new buildings by M. Wilford were built in 1992–2000 with the cultural center “The Lowry” in Manchester and 1995–2000 with the British embassy in Berlin. Foster (in collaboration with Ove Arup Associates)set new accents in the cityscapein London with the Swiss Re Tower (2001-04) and the architecture firm Future Systems with the Selfridges department store in Birmingham (completed in 2003).

English Arts 6