English Arts Part III

English Arts 3

The decorated style brought a strong tendency towards lush, decorative forms of jewelry that conceal the basic structures and their function. The main focus turned to the details: portals, windows, tracery and vaults were richly formed, the vault ribs multiplied to form mesh patterns, rich ornamentation surrounded the framework. The nave and choir of Exeter Cathedral (1275 ff.) And the nave of York Cathedral (1291–1324) are considered the most important creations of this period. They are supported by parts of the cathedrals of Lincoln, Lichfield, Wells, Ely, York and Gloucester.

In the Perpendicular Style, the decorative elements of the cathedrals aimed at decorating and dividing the room were further developed and systematized. The vertical framework (also appearing horizontally on the outer walls), which gave its name to this period, was predominant; The preferred vault shape was the fan vault with its stalactite-like formations. Main examples can be found in the vaults of the cathedrals of Winchester, Gloucester, Canterbury and Peterborough, in the chapel of King’s College in Cambridge (1446–1515), in that of St. George in Windsor (1474 ff.) And in Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey in London (1502-09). A handsome array of abbeys, priories (Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire; Christchurch Priory, Hampshire) and secular buildings (Westminster Hall, Guildhall, London; colleges at Oxford and Cambridge) also belong to the Perpendicular Style.

Sculpture: While the English Gothic took over the innovations of French architecture in the early phase, the French figure portal found no successor. The most important sculpture program of the English Gothic (350 individual figures set in niches) was realized on the facade of Wells Cathedral (1230–39). Wells are comparable to figure cycles on the facades of the cathedrals of Salisbury (1220–60) and Exeter (13th century). The facade cycle of Lincoln Cathedral (around 1220–30) is less elaborate. The collection of grave figures created since the 13th century is both quantitative and qualitative. Edward III’s tomb († 1377) in Westminster Abbey in London. Alabaster was the preferred material, but bronze and copper (mostly gold-plated) were also used.

Painting: Illumination remained predominant in the field of painting in England until the end of the 15th century, and at that time it was no longer limited to monastic scriptoria. Like the isolated evidence of wall, glass and panel painting, it was influenced by French models. This resulted in numerous illustrated psalter and apocalypse manuscripts, whereby the miniature painters not only used the opaque color technique, but also preferred pen drawings. The bestiaries (wild animals and fabulous figures) that emerged towards the end of the 12th century brought an expansion of the iconographic repertoire. By 1220 the French Gothic gained the upper hand. Type-forming were v. a. the representations of the apocalypses, in which the text was completely subordinated to the images. Matthaeus Parisiensis (from 1235/36), who illuminated a number of important manuscripts (including Historia Anglorum, around 1245–50; London, British Library), was characterized by a calligraphic drawing style combined with an imaginative enrichment of decorative elements. Other important manuscripts can be found in the scriptoria in Peterborough (including the Psalter of Robert von Lindeseye, around 1220-22; London, British Library) and Salisbury (including Wilton Psalter, around 1250; London, Royal College of Physicians). Towards the end of the 13th century, the great tradition of scriptoria fell into disrepair and at the beginning of the 14th century led to the so-called East Anglian Style, which is characterized by marginal cycles that are largely independent of the text, in addition to the usual miniature jewelry. Major works of this style include: the Psalter of Queen Mary (around 1310–20; London, British Library), the Ormesby Psalter (between 1250–60 and 1325; Oxford, Bodleian Library) and the Gorleston Psalter (around 1310–20; London, British Library).

According to cachedhealth.com, English art of the 14th century received decisive inspiration from the royal court, which attracted artists from the Netherlands, Bohemia, Italy and France. Around 1350–63 was built under King Edward III. in Westminster Palace the Chapel of Saint Stephen (destroyed in 1834), the furnishings of which showed the latest advances in wall and stained glass. This international style influenced panel painting (Wilton Diptych, c. 1380, London, National Gallery; Norwich reredos, late 14th century, Norwich Cathedral). Stained glass with windows was acquired by the Masters Thomas of Oxford (windows for Winchester College, around 1400) and John Thornton from Coventry (east window of York Cathedral, between 1405 and 1408) meaning. – English embroidery was highly developed (Syon cope, 1st quarter of the 14th century and Butler Bowden cope, 2nd half of the 14th century; both London, Victoria & Albert Museum).

English Arts 3