Economy overview: Before the breakup of Yugoslavia, Croatia was the second largest area of Yugoslavia after Slovenia in terms of wealth and industrial development, with a per capita output about a third higher than that of Yugoslavia. Independent Croatia faced significant economic difficulties for several reasons: prolonged poor economic management by the communists, factories destroyed in the civil war, bridges, power lines, buildings, a large number of refugees and migrants (both Croats and Bosnians), the severing of economic ties. Western aid and investment, especially in tourism and the oil industry, should help the recovery. The economy recovered from a moderate recession in 2000, with the tourism industry as the main engine of growth. The high level of unemployment remains an important problem. See businesscarriers.com to know more about Croatia Economics and Business.
GDP: at purchasing power parity – $24.9 billion (2000 est.).
Real GDP growth rate: 3.2% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: at purchasing power parity, $5,800 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 10%; industry: 19%; services: 71% (1999 est.). Proportion of population below the poverty line: 4% (1999 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line:
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: n/a; 10% of the wealthiest families: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 6% (2000 est.).
Work force: 1.68 million people (October 2000).
Employment structure: no data.
Unemployment rate: 22% (October 2000).
Budget: revenues: $6 billion; expenditures: $4.7 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (1999 est.).
Economic sectors: production of chemicals and plastics, machine tools, metalworking industry, electronics industry, production of iron and flat products, aluminum, paper, wood products, building materials, textile industry, shipbuilding, oil production and oil refining, food and beverage production; tourism.
Growth in industrial production: 1.7% (2000).
Electricity generation: 10.96 billion kWh (1999).
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 40.89%; hydropower: 59%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0.11% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 13.643 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 1 billion kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 4.45 billion kWh (1999)
Agricultural products: wheat, corn, sugar beet, sunflower, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables; livestock, dairy products.
Export: $4.3 billion (free on board, 1999)
Exports: transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels.
Export partners: Italy 18%, Germany 15.7%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12.8%, Slovenia 10.6%, Austria 6.2% (1999).
Imports: $7.8 billion (S.I.F., 1999)
Imports: machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs.
Import partners: Germany 18.5%, Italy 15.9%, Russia 8.6%, Slovenia 7.9%, Austria 7.1% (1999).
External debt: $9.9 billion (December 1999) Recipient of economic assistance: no data.
Economic aid donor:
Currency: Croatian kuna.
Currency code: HRK.
Exchange rate: HRK/USD 8.089 (January 2001), 8.277 (2000), 7.112 (1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.157 (1997), 5.434 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 1.488 million (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 187,000 (end of 1998).
Telephone system: internal: the reconstruction plan involves the replacement of all analogue communication systems with digital ones and the development of a network; international: digital international communication is provided through the main exchange in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the TEL (Trans-Asia-Europe) project, which involves laying two fiber optic lines to Slovenia and one line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also participating with Germany, Albania and Greece in the construction of the ADRIA 1 fiber optic line (2000).
Broadcast stations: AM -16, FM -98, shortwave – 5 (1999).
Radio receivers: 1.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 36 (and 321 repeaters) (September 1995).
Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)
Internet Country Code: hr
Internet Service Providers: 9 (2000).
Number of users: 100,000 (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 2,296 km; standard gauge: 2,296 km (1.435 m gauge) (983 km electrified); note: some lines are out of service or out of service, having been destroyed during armed clashes (1997).
Roads: total: 27,840 km; paved: 23,497 km (including 330 km of expressways); unpaved: 4,343 km (1998 est.).
Waterways: 785 km are permanently navigable; large sections of the Sava River are blocked by destroyed bridges, rubble, and silt.
Pipelines: for crude oil – 670 km; for oil products -20 km; for natural gas – 310 km (1992); note – being repaired after the end of the civil war.
Ports and harbours: Vukovar (port on the Danube River), Dubrovnik, Dugi, Zadar, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Sibenik.
Merchant fleet: total: 53 vessels (displacement 1,000 tons or more) with a total displacement of 631,853 gross register tons / 969,739 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: bulk carriers – 11, cargo ships – 18, chemical tankers – 1, combined bulk carriers – 5, container ships – 3, multifunctional heavy cargo ships – 3, passenger ships – 1, oil tankers – 2, refrigerated ships – 2, ferries for the transport of loaded vehicles – 4, coastal passenger ships – 3 (2000 est.).
Airports: 67 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 22; over 3,047 m: 2; from 2438 to 3047 m:6; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2; from 914 to 1,523 m: 4; less than 914 m: 8 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 45; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1; from 914 to 1523 m:8; less than 914 m: 36 (2000 est.). Helipads: 1 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: ground forces, naval forces, air and anti-aircraft forces, border guards, internal troops.
Enlistment age: 19 years old.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 1,085,877 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 859,621 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 30,037 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $575 million (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 3.8% (2000).
International Issues International Disputes: Croatia and Italy have made progress in bilateral negotiations on property and ethnic minority rights since World War II; progress has been made in negotiations with Slovenia to agree on a land boundary, but problems remain in defining a maritime boundary; Croatia and Yugoslavia are negotiating the status of the strategically important Prevlaka peninsula, which is now under the control of the UN military observer mission (UNMOP).
Illicit drugs: staging post on the Balkan heroin route from Southwest Asia to Western Europe; a minor transit point for cocaine from South America to Western Europe.