Bulgaria Military, Economy and Transportation

Bulgaria Military, Economy and Transportation

Economy

Economy overview: Bulgaria, a former communist country seeking to join the European market economy, experienced a significant economic downturn in 1996 and 1997. Inflation was in triple digits, with GDP shrinking by 10.6% and 6.9%, respectively. The government that came to power after early parliamentary elections in May 1997 stabilized the economy and boosted growth by introducing a “currency committee” regime, prudent fiscal policies, stimulating privatization, and preparing structural reforms. In addition, strong support from international financial institutions (primarily the IMF, which in September 1998 approved a $900 million three-year extended lending program) played a critical role in the recovery of the economy. After several years of decline, the Bulgarian economy has stabilized. Its economic development in 1999 exceeded expectations despite the impact of the Kosovo conflict, the Russian financial crisis and structural reforms. Strong growth in 2000 portends strong growth over the next few years as well; its achievement depends on the continued implementation of a tight monetary policy, additional structural reforms, receipt of foreign aid and the prosperity of the EU economy.┬áSee businesscarriers.com to know more about Bulgaria Economics and Business.
GDP: Purchasing Power Parity $48 billion (2000 est.)
Real GDP growth rate: 5% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: PPP $6,200 (2000 est.)
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 15%; industry: 29%; services: 56% (2000 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of family income or consumption: per 10% of the poorest families: 3.4%; by the top 10% of families: 22.5% (1995).
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 10.4% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 3.83 million people (2000 est.).
Employment structure: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services 43% (1998 est.).
Unemployment rate: 17.7% (2000 est.).
Budget: revenues: $4.85 billion; expenditures: $4.92 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (2000 est.).
Spheres of economy: food industry, production of beverages and tobacco, production of machinery and equipment, production of chemicals, building materials, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining, production of nuclear fuel.
Growth in industrial production: 10.8% (2000 est.).
Electricity generation: 36.217 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 51.52%; hydropower: 8.35%; nuclear fuel: 40.12%; others: 0.01% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 33.182 mpdkWh (1999).
Electricity export: 2.2 billion kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 1.7 billion kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine, wheat, barley, sunflower, sugar beet.
Exports: $4.8 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Exports: clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment; fuel.
Export partners: Italy 14%, Turkey 10%, Germany 9%, Greece 8%, Yugoslavia 8%, Belgium 6%, France 5%, USA 4% (2000).
Imports: $5.9 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import articles: mineral raw materials and fuel; cars and equipment; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles.
Import partners: Russia 24%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 5%, France 5%, Romania 4%, Turkey 3%, USA 3% (2000).
External debt: $10.4 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $1 billion (1999 est.)
Donor of economic aid:
Currency: lev.
Currency code: BGL.
Exchange rate: BGL/USD – 2.0848 (January 2001), 2.1233 (2000), 1.8364 (1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997), 177.89 (1996) ); note: on July 5, 1999, the currency was denominated; the lev put into circulation after July 5, 1999 is equal to 1,000 levs in circulation before July 5, 1999.
Fiscal year: calendar year.

Telecommunications

Telecommunications Telephone lines: 3.255 million (2000).
Mobile cellular telephones: 596,000 (2000).
Telephone system: extensive, but not up-to-date; internal: more than two thirds of the lines are home telephones; telephone services are available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line currently connects the switches of most areas, with other areas there is a digital microwave radio relay; international: direct dialing 58 countries; ground satellite stations – 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Oceans).
Broadcast stations: AM -24, FM -93, shortwave – 2 (1998).
Radio receivers: 4.51 million (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 96 (and 1,030 repeaters) (1995).
Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)
Internet country code: bg
Internet service providers: 26 (2000).
Number of users: 200,000 (2000).

Transport

Transport Railways: total: 4,294 km; standard gauge: 4,049 km (1.435 m gauge: 2,710 km electrified; 917 km double track); narrow gauge: 245 km (0.760 m gauge) (1998).
Roads: total: 36,724 km; paved: 33,786 km (including 314 km of expressways); unpaved: 2,938 km (1999 est.).
Waterways: 470 km (1987).
Pipelines: for oil products: 525 km; for natural gas: 1,500 km (1999).
Ports and harbours: Burgas, Varna, Vidin, Lom, Ne-sebar, Ruse.
Merchant navy: in total: 81 ships (of 1,000 tons displacement or more) with a total displacement of 938,706 gross register tons / 1,440,374 long tons of gross tonnage; ships of various types: bulk carriers – 44, cargo ships – 16, chemical tankers – 4, container ships – 2, cargo-passenger ships – 1, oil tankers – 6, railway wagon ships – 2, refrigerated ships – 1, ferries – 3, coastal passenger ships – 1, specialized tankers – 1 (2000 est.).
Airports: 215 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 128; over 3,047 m: 1; from 2438 to 3047 m:19; from 1524 to 2437 m:15; from 914 to 1523 m:1; less than 914 m: 92 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 87; from 1524 to 2437 m:2; from 914 to 1523 m: 10; less than 914 m: 75 (1999 est.). Helipads: 1 (2000 est.).

Armed Forces

Branches of the Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Forces, Internal Troops.
Enlistment age: 19 years old.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49 pets: 1,891,498 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 1,581,697 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: men: 56,104 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $344 million (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: 2.4% (2000)

International Issues

International issues International controversy:
Illicit drugs: main transit point to Europe for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine; limited production of chemicals needed to obtain drugs.

Bulgaria Military