Economy overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Macedonia, was the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost entirely private, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic is traditionally a food importer. The industry employs too many people, which is one of the consequences of the economic structure of socialist Yugoslavia. TITO (TITO) developed the construction of military enterprises in the republic, and this led to the fact that a significant number of Yugoslav defense plants were located on the territory of Bosnia. Bloody ethnic war in Bosnia from 1990 to 1995. led to a drop in production by 80%, a rapid increase in unemployment and poverty of the population. During the years of fragile peace, in 1996-98, a high percentage increase in production followed, since it had to start almost from scratch, but already in 1999 growth slowed down noticeably and GDP remains well below the level of 1990. There is not enough data on the state of the economy, since national statistics are not kept (although data are collected in both parts of the country). What’s more, the official figures don’t take into account the massive black market. The marka, the national currency introduced in 1998, gained widespread acceptance and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina was able to dramatically increase its reserves. Privatization, however, is slower than expected. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all communist-era financial institutions ceased to exist. The country receives substantial sums for economic recovery and humanitarian aid from the international community. See businesscarriers.com to know more about Bosnia and Herzegovina Economics and Business.
GDP: Purchasing Power Parity $6.5 billion (2000 est.)
Real GDP growth rate: 8% (2000 est.).
GDP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity $1,700 (2000 est.).
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 19%; industry: 23%; services: 58% (1996 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: for the poorest 10% of households: n/a; by top 10% of households: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 8% (2000 est.).
Labor force: 1.026 million people
Employment structure: no data.
Unemployment rate: 35-40% (1999 est.).
Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion; expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures – NA (1999 est.).
Economic sectors: steel production, coal mining, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, car assembly, fabric, tobacco, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, household electrical appliances, oil refining.
Growth in industrial production: 10% (2000 OC).
Electricity generation: 2.585 billion kWh (1999)
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: 38.68%; hydropower: 61.32%; nuclear fuel: 0%; others: 0% (1999).
Electricity consumption: 2.684 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity export: 150 million kWh (1999).
Electricity import: 430 million kWh (1999).
Agricultural products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock.
Exports: $950 million (free on board, 2000 est.)
Export articles: no data.
Export partners: Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany.
Imports: $2.45 billion (free on board, 2000 est.)
Import articles: no data.
Import partners: Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy.
External debt: $3.4 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid recipient: $1 billion j (1999).
Donor of economic aid:
Currency code: VAM.
Exchange rate: BAM/USD – 2.086 (January 2001), 2.124 (2000), 1.837 (1999), 1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997), 0.015 (1996).
Fiscal year: calendar year.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 303,000 (1997).
Mobile cell phones: 9,000 (1997).
Telephone system: telephone and telegraph communications need to be modernized and expanded; communications in many urban areas are worse than in other republics of the former Yugoslavia; internal: no data; international: no satellite earth stations.
Broadcasting stations: AM – 8, FM -16, shortwave – 1 (1998).
Radio receivers: 940,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 33 (and 277 repeaters) (September 1995).
TVs: no data.
Internet country code: ba
Internet providers: 3 (2000).
Number of users: 3,500 (2000).
Transport Railways: total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified; diesel and steam locomotives running while the power grid is being repaired); with standard gauge: 1,021 km (1.435 m gauge); note – some areas are still in need of repair and/or rehabilitation (2000).
Roads: total: 21,846 km; coated: 14,020 km; unpaved: 7,826 km; note: roads need maintenance and repair (2000).
Waterways: no data; large sections of the Sava River are blocked by destroyed bridges, construction debris, and silted up.
Pipelines: for crude oil: 174 km; for natural gas: 90 km (1992).
Ports and harbours: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Brod, Bosanska Samac, Brcko (inland ports on the Sava River), Orasie.
Merchant fleet: none (2000 est.).
Airports: 28 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 9; from 2438 to 3047 m:4; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2; less than 914 m: 3 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 19; from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1; 914 to 1523 m:2, less than 914 m: 11 (2000 est.). Helipads: 4 (2000 est.).
Branches of the armed forces: Army of the Federation (VF) (consists of Croats and Bosniaks), Army of the Republika Srpska (consists of Bosnian Serbs); note – in the composition of the troops of both formations there are air and anti-air units as auxiliary units.
Enlistment age: 19 years old.
Total military manpower: men 15 to 49 pets: 1,127,146 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: men aged 15 to 49: 895,780 (2001 est.).
Number of persons annually reaching military age: men: 29,757 (2001 OC.).
Military spending in dollar terms: no data available.
Military spending as part of GDP: no data available.
International issues International disputes: no.
Illicit drugs: a minor transit point for marijuana and opiates destined for Western Europe.