Bhutan, officially Dzongkha Druk Yul [Tibetan »Dragon Empire«], German Kingdom of Bhutan, state in the eastern Himalayas with (2019) 763 100 residents; The capital is Thimphu. Visit barblejewelry.com for Bhutan travel package.
The political system introduced by Ngawang Namgyal remained in place until the beginning of the 20th century. Due to power struggles between the governors of Tongsa and Paro, Bhutan was shaken by three civil wars between 1868 and 1885. 1885 erected the pönlop of Tongsa, Ugyen Wangchuck (* 1861, † 1926), his rule over the land. With his election as king (December 17, 1907), supported by the British, Bhutan was converted into a hereditary monarchy (beginning of the Wangchuck dynasty, which ruled to the present day); the ruler assumed the title of Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King). The Shabdrung was ostracized, two incarnations later died mysteriously (the current incarnation lives in exile in India). Through the Treaty of Punakha (1910) Bhutan submitted to the protective power of British India with an assurance of non-interference in the internal affairs of the country. On August 8, 1949, a friendship treaty with India, which had meanwhile become independent, replaced the previous protectorate relationship (stipulation that India should take care of Bhutan’s foreign policy and provide economic aid). 1926–52 prevailed Jigme Wangchuck (* 1906, † 1952) as king (enthronement 1927). His successor Jigme Dorji Wangchuck (* 1929, † 1972;King 1952–72) carried out domestic political reforms (1953 creation of the National Assembly, 1958 granting of citizenship to many Nepalese immigrants and prohibition of further immigration, 1965 establishment of a Royal Advisory Council, 1968 right of the National Assembly to object to decisions of the King with a two-thirds majority); With Indian help, he began a cautious modernization (1961 start of the first five-year plan, since the beginning of the 1960s construction of a road network) and initiated the opening of his country (1962 accession to the Colombo plan, 1971 admission to the UN). After the crackdown on an uprising in Tibet by Chinese troops (1959), around 6,000 Tibetan refugees came to Bhutan.
In 1960 the capital Thimphu was founded. After the death of Jigme Dorji Wangchuckwas his son Jigme Singye Wangchuck (* 1955) in 1972King (official coronation on June 2, 1974). He continued the cautious, gradual modernization and opening up of his country (1974 opening of his country for restricted tourism, 1985 founding member of the SAARC). In 1984, complicated border negotiations with China began. In the mid-1980s, Bhutan’s policy, which was in part pursued with restrictive means, aimed at the controlled development of the country and attached great importance to the preservation of national identity, the preservation of traditions and the protection of the natural environment, growing domestic political tensions. Fears of the Ngalong about the foreign infiltration of Bhutan by the immigrant Nepalese (Lhotshampa) led to an amendment of the citizenship law in 1985 (revision of the citizenship regulations for Lhotshampa, tightening of the criteria for naturalization) and in 1989 to the mass expulsion of “non-nationals”; many Lhotshampa who had received citizenship papers in 1958 were also affected; Schools and hospitals in southern Bhutan were closed, Nepali was no longer allowed to be used as the language of instruction, and cultural activities were banned. This “Bhutanization” campaign resulted in bloody protests (peak in September 1990) and expulsions from southern Bhutan (around 100,000 refugees by 1994/95); the Nepalese residents of southern Bhutan were branded as anti-national elements or rebels (ngolop). Organizations operating in India and Nepal emerged (in 1989 the People’s Forum for Human Rights was founded, from which the Bhutan People’s Party emerged in 1990). In 1992 the Bhutan National Democratic Party (BNDP) was founded. Since October 1993, bilateral negotiations between Bhutan and Nepal to solve the refugee problem have taken place once or twice a year, without any success. In mid-2003, a joint commission from both countries identified around 2.5% of the people in the refugee camps in south-east Nepal as legal refugees; however, the repatriation of these people was later rejected by the Bhutanese parliament. Since the beginning of 1997 at the latest, the Sharchop of East Bhutans have also publicly opposed the Drukpa state. They organized themselves in the Druk National Congress (DNC, founded in 1994). India initially largely stayed out of the ethnic conflicts of Bhutan, but then put increasing pressure on the country to take action against north-east Indian rebels operating from Bhutanese territory; in December 2003, Bhutan gave in to this pressure and deployed its army against the Indian rebels on its territory. operating from Bhutanese territory; in December 2003, Bhutan gave in to this pressure and deployed its army against the Indian rebels on its territory. operating from Bhutanese territory; in December 2003, Bhutan gave in to this pressure and deployed its army against the Indian rebels on its territory.