Azerbaijani language and literature
Azerbaijani language and literature. According to rctoysadvice.com, the Azerbaijani language (»Aseri«) belongs to the south-western group of the Turkic languages. It is spoken by around 7 million people in Azerbaijan, and around 24 million in Iran, Iraq and Turkey. Some eastern dialects of Turkey can also be assigned to Azerbaijani. The language structure of the written language differs only slightly from Turkish-Turkish; there are significant differences in vocabulary due to stronger Persian and (in Azerbaijan) Russian influences. It began to develop as an independent literary language in the 11th century. In 1923, it was decided to latinize in Azerbaijan, implemented a little later, and finally in 1940 the Cyrillic script was introduced. The transition to a Latin alphabet borrowed from Turkish began in 1992; The Latin alphabet was introduced by decree on August 1, 2001.
At all stages of development, literature is one of the most important of the Turkic peoples. She has some works of the folk epic (e.g. the Dede Korkut) and the classic Fuzuli in common with Ottoman literature. Nesimi (* 1369, † 1404) can beconsidered the first clearly Azerbaijani poet. The first ruler of the Iranian Safavids Shah Ismail (* 1485, † 1524) was literary under the name »Chatai«. The 17th century was the heyday of folk poetry; in addition, classical literature continued to develop in the tradition of Fuzuli and the Djagataic poet Nevai.
The poet Molla Pänah Wagyf (* 1717, † 1797) is considered to be the founder of newer Azerbaijani literature. Mirzä Schäfi Wazeh (* 1794, † 1852) became famous in Europe through F. von Bodenstedt (“Songs of Mirza Schaffy”); the authenticity of his poetry is, however, controversial. In the 19th century the development of a western-oriented prose literature began with the continuation of the poetry based on Persian models. The Enlightenment stage poem by Mirza Feth-Ali Achundzade,influenced by Molière also influenced the literatures of Turkey and Iran. – After the revolution of 1905 – aided by the dynamic economic development of the oil-rich country – a remarkable development of Azerbaijani literature took place. While the circle around the magazine “Füyuzat” (“Reiche Gaben”) represented an Ottoman tendency, others advocated independent Azerbaijani literature; The satirical magazine »Molla Näsräddin« (1906–1930), published by Djälil Mämmädguluzadä (* 1866, † 1932), was important.
From the 1920s onwards, Azerbaijani literature largely followed developments in Soviet literature. In addition to a prose trained on Russian models (D. Djabbarly), the poetry was also maintained (Samäd Wurgun, * 1906, † 1956). Poets like Bakhtiyar Wahabzade (* 1925, † 2009) stood in the time of the thaw and afterwards for the attempt of a carefully formulated dissent.
Since the years of Gorbachev’s perestroika and the end of the Soviet Union, nationalist and surrealist trends have manifested themselves. Authors of these years who are known through translations include: Anar (* 1938) and Eltschin. The change to the Latin alphabet and the collapse of massive state funding for literary production and consumption were among the inhibiting factors in literary development in the first years of the republic. – Modern Azerbaijani literature has hardly been able to develop in Iran; best known here is the poet Schährijar (* 1907 or 1908, † 1987).
Azerbaijani music, Folk and art music in Azerbaijan, some of which extends beyond the national territory. Azerbaijani music can be roughly divided into rural folk music carried by bards (Ashiq) and music more found in cities (Mugham) on the one hand, and an art music tradition dating back to the 14th century on the other. Mugham and the music of the Ashiq have a lot in common, especially since some mugham come from folk music. Although mugham means “classical” music, both are performed at social events such as weddings, including dancing. In total there are about 100 types of melodies used by the Ashiq, to which different poems can be sung. As an accompanying instrument, the Saz has absolute priority,
Art music, which has been systematically collected since the beginning of the 19th century (for example by Mir Möhsun Nävvab, * 1833, † 1918), experienced an interruption in the 18th century for unknown reasons; the more recent tradition is only partly based on the old one. The tar, a long-necked lute with five playing strings and four to six drone strings, dominates as an instrument of art music. After 1900 at the latest, the influence of Western music on Azerbaijani music increased. B. in the form of operas, operettas and symphonies came to mix.