Azerbaijan Cities and World Heritage Site

Rock paintings and cultural landscape of Gobustan (World Heritage)


Gäncä [- d ʒ -], Gәncә [- d ʒ -], Ganja, Gandza [- d ʒ -], Russian Ganja, Gjandža [- d ʒ -], 1804-1918 Jelisawetpol, Elizavetpol ‘ [je LIZA], 1935-89 Kirovabad [by S. M. Kirov ], city in Azerbaijan, 442 m above sea level, on the northern edge of the Lesser Caucasus, on the Gjandschatschai, (2015) 328 400 residents.

Agricultural and Technical College; Textile and food industry, china factory, wineries; In the industrial region of Gäncä – Daschkessan, ore mining, ore enrichment, iron and non-ferrous metallurgy and the chemical industry dominate.

The remains of the mighty citadel and the medieval double city wall dominate the extensive field of ruins of the old Gäncä, which was uncovered in 1938-40. In Gäncä there are numerous architectural monuments from the 14th to 18th centuries. Century preserved, among other things. the Imansade mausoleum (14th century, partly destroyed in the 17th century) and the caravanserai. Memorial to the Persian poet Nisami, who was probably born in Gäncä in 1141.

Gäncä, which emerged from the city founded in the 5th century and first mentioned in the 9th century (destroyed by an earthquake in 1138), was in the 12th – 13th centuries. Century important commercial and trading center as well as cultural center of Azerbaijan. In the 18th century the city was the capital of a khanate, in 1804 it came to Russia and in 1868 it became the capital of a governorate.


Sumgait, Azerbaijani Sumqayıt [ka j ɪ t], city in Azerbaijan, on the northwest coast of the projects into the Caspian Sea peninsula of Apsheron, (2015) 297 600 residents.

Once the location of one of the largest chemical and metallurgy production plants in the Soviet Union, today the second largest center of the Baku-Sumgait industrial region with the oil and gas processing industry, aluminum works, steel industry (rolling and tube mills), compressor construction, glass industry. The region around Sumgait and the adjacent coastal zone of the Caspian Sea are widely contaminated by residues from oil production, and air pollution is extremely high.

The city emerged from 1949. In February 1988 a bloody pogrom was perpetrated on the Armenians living here.


Mingetschaur, Mingečaur [-t ʃ -], Azerbaijani Mingәçevir [-t ʃ -], city ​​in Azerbaijan, on the Kura, (2015) 101 600 residents.

Technical college; Machine and equipment construction, chemical and metalworking, textile and food industries.

Founded in 1945 during the construction of a power plant on the Mingetschaur reservoir (Kura).


Xirdalan [ x ɪ -], city in Azerbaijan, on the peninsula of Apsheron, northwest of Baku, (2015) of 96 200 residents.

Furniture industry, brewery. – City law 2006.


Apscheron, Azerbaijani Abşeron [- ʃ -], 60 km long, up to 30 km wide peninsula on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, in Azerbaijan; The center is Baku on the south coast. The flat, undulating area (up to 165 m above sea level) has a desert-like climate; Irrigation crops. The Baku-Sumgait industrial zone extends over Apsheron, in which crude oil production and processing as well as related industries such as petrochemicals and plant construction are the dominant industrial sectors. Already in ancient times crude oil was extracted from oil wells on Apsheron; industrial extraction began in the Baku area in the mid-19th century, later the focus of extraction shifted to the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea. In the meantime, the more easily accessible supplies have been exhausted.

Rock paintings and cultural landscape of Gobustan (World Heritage)

According to, the site is located 50 km southwest of Baku in a semi-desert. It was only discovered in 1930 and contains almost 6000 Stone Age rock carvings depicting people and hunting scenes and giving insights into the Neolithic world of people.

Gobustan Rock Art and Cultural Landscape: Facts

Official title: Rock paintings and cultural landscape of Gobustan
Cultural monument: Three hill areas (Yazlitepe, Boyukdash, Kichikdash) on a high plateau in the semi-desert of Central Azerbaijan with over 6,000 rock carvings; predominantly stone engravings, partly colored, on approx. 1,000 rocks on an area of ​​5.4 km² in the caves of limestone blocks; The beginnings of this rock art probably over 40,000 years ago, made in different periods, from the Paleolithic Age (Upper Palaeolithic, from approx. 40,000 BC) to the Neolithic (from approx. 10,000 BC), the Bronze Age (from approx. 2500 BC) BC) and Iron Age (from approx. 1600 BC) to the Middle Ages; Diverse, sometimes life-size depictions of people (e.g. hunters, fishermen, women, mainly from the Paleolithic), community motifs (e.g. dance, sacrifice, hunting, fighting, boat, work and ritual scenes the Neolithic Age, also medieval camel caravans) and animals (e.g. bulls, lions, gazelles, goats also fish, reptiles, insects, later domestic animals); realistic, proportional, with the settling down in the Near Eastern Neolithic, increasingly schematic representations; often oversized: e.g. bulls 2.40 m, fish over 4 m, fishermen 4.30 m; also finds of Latin, Arabic and Persian characters; Area with the rock caves, settlements and burial places part of the Gobustan nature reserve Arabic and Persian characters; Area with the rock caves, settlements and burial places part of the Gobustan nature reserve Arabic and Persian characters; Area with the rock caves, settlements and burial places part of the Gobustan nature reserve
Continent: Asia
Country: Azerbaijan
Location: approx. 55 km west of Baku (East Azerbaijan)
Appointment: 2007
Meaning: Exceptional evidence of rock art from thousands of years; unique documentation of past forms of life of hunters and gatherers and their further development into sedentary farming peoples; Evidence of cultural continuity since prehistoric times; invaluable “archive” of cultural history

Rock paintings and cultural landscape of Gobustan (World Heritage)