Macao is a Special Administrative Region of the People's
Republic of China. Territory under Portuguese
administration until 1999, it is located on the south
coast of China, on the west bank of the Zhu Jiang
estuary, Pearl River, about 60 kmfrom Hong Kong.
It has an area of 28.2 km2 , including the
islands of Taipa and Coloane. During the Portuguese
administration, the capital was named the City of the
Holy Name of God of Macau, being linked to the island of
Taipa through a bridge that, in turn, communicates with
Coloane Island by a road built on a dike. The summer is
hot and humid and the winter is more pleasant.
Although Macau has few natural resources and, at the
agricultural level, only produces a few vegetables, it
plays an extremely important role in the region's
trade. Exports consist of textiles, clothing, fireworks,
toys, Chinese wines, incense, camphor chests, artificial
flowers and electronic components. China is the supplier
of basic necessities, especially food and construction
Tourism, attracted by the picturesque landscape and,
above all, by the fascination of gambling in casinos and
gambling in the canidrome, is also an extremely
important sector for the region's economy.
The population is 646 800 inhabitants (July 2015 est.),
Of which approximately 93% are Chinese and 1% are
Portuguese. The most important religions are Buddhist
(50%) and Catholic (15%).
The first Portuguese navigator to demand Chinese ports,
Jorge Álvares, anchored in Tun Mun, or Tamang, in 1513.
Four years later, Tomé Pires was entrusted with the task
of meeting in Beijing with Emperor Cheng Te. However,
after the Chinese sovereign's unexpected death, all
foreigners were expelled from the region. In 1521, a new
embassy followed, headed by Martim Afonso de Melo, but
was never received. Chinese ports remained closed to
It was only in 1554 that authorization was granted to
trade in the ports of Guangdong province, including that
of Macau, known by the name of Koi Kiang. In 1557, after
the Portuguese managed to drive pirates off the Chinese
coast, Emperor Chi-Tsung rewarded Portugal by offering
him Macau. Our presence was a guarantee of security and
peace throughout the region, in addition to ensuring
coastal navigation and the respective maritime trade.
In 1976, Macau became a territory under Portuguese
administration, according to a special organic statute
contemplated in the Constitution of the Portuguese
Republic, promulgated that year. This statute gave Macau
administrative, economic, financial and legislative
autonomy, with representation of Portuguese sovereignty
and local bodies with legislative and executive
functions. The governor and the Legislative Assembly
became governing bodies of the territory.
This legal system is characterized by respect for
fundamental principles, rights, freedoms and
constitutionally enshrined guarantees, and the
implementation of a value system based on the dignity of
the human person and the principles of the rule of law.
After diplomatic relations between Portugal and the
People's Republic of China were established in 1979, it
was possible to start negotiations between both states
with a view to resolving the Macau issue, which resulted
in the signing of the Luso-Chinese Joint Declaration on
the Question of Macao, in April 1987. In this document,
emphasis was placed on the commitment made by the
People's Republic of China to, upon resuming sovereignty
over Macau, on December 20, 1999, obliging itself to
keep the current ones unchanged in the territory. social
and economic systems, as well as the way of life of the
inhabitants of Macao, thus preserving their existing
laws, rights, freedoms and guarantees.