It is a science that studies the forces on the bodies and movements that produce.
Study of the machines (construction and operation)
From this point of view modern watches are machines that mark the passing of time. Dimension field is never easy, set limits on time, which is the beginning and the end, it is complicated. No one has managed to establish the origins of the mechanical clock or the exact date of their invention or inventor, sometimes leaning on some bases are several people who arrive at identical conclusions.
Brand watches Nomon never loses that perspective.
In 80 BC the Greeks had already created astronomical instruments running gears. Probably the first modern mechanical clock was created from a water clock in China, called “blue machine”, dating from the 11th century (the water clock activated a set of gears that activate different mechanisms (balls, robots) etc. also made astronomical measurements, but there are written documents that say that no rest of it existed,.)
Watches know sure that existed in Europe at the end of the 13th century. Any is of course not retained, known to exist for written documents.
In Spain, in an inventory of the Cathedral of Toledo in the second half of the 13th century a “disrupted orologio” is mentioned. Around the same time is
It means that such a Guillem de Bellester built a church of Vic clock.
The word horologium designated watch bearing, that included all sorts of instruments to measure the time in the middle ages.
The exhaust is what differentiates the mechanical clock of all other mechanisms until then, is the great innovation. Controls the movement of the rocker and regulates the rhythm of the clock advance, becomes the
All mechanical watches consist of three elements whatever their forms, and two others which can be expendable, contained and held in the frame:
As a base they have a mechanism on a set of gears (bearing) powered by a weight or spring (driving force), whose rotation speed is controlled by a regulator (escape).
Usually the mechanism is equipped with a dial that points the fractions of time to measure (quadrant) and there are often complementary mechanisms that give the hour by means of a campaign, a gong, music… (chime device)
It is the set of elements linked together that surround and sustain modern clock machine.
Also called cage in some types of watches.
The oldest frame is pillars, made of iron until the 17TH century.
The horizontal elements are plates or metal rods, and are United in the
angles by pillars (vertical). Bars that support the axles of the wheels are inserted between brackets or other construction elements.
Subsequently brackets tend to be brass and are also subject by pillars of brass, but the wheels revolve directly supported on brackets. DRIVING force: It is the element that gives the watch the impulse to run the rest of the mechanism.
NOMON frame materials are depending on the clock, if we talk about the watch OJ would be plastic and if we go to the collections of watches of more nives watches frame would be walnut and steel.
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-Weight of the Watch:
From the origins of the modern mechanical clock and until our days, weight spinning wheel first produces the force of driving energy. But it is clear that this hanging weight, must be in a defined position, to allow gravity to accomplish its function.
There are an infinite number of systems:
A weight on the end of a rope or a chain which passes through a pulley timing, at the other end of the rope hangs a counterweight, in this way to give you wind the clock the only thing to do is pull the counterweight to upload new dumbbell (there may also be without counterweight, with a locking mechanism that prevents the weight down).
Otherwise, rolled across the rope or chain on a mobile wheel hub by the end of the rope hangs the weight. To give him rope should turn the wheel counterclockwise movement of this.
The weight on a pulley that has the rest of the rope coiled and the top mobile wheel may also be suspended.
The weights of clocks Nomon are variable depending on the materials in which the Watch has been.
The invention of the pier as a driving force in the wall clocks, in the 15th century, has had extraordinary importance, suddenly watches were released from the wall or tower. Bourgogne was the inventor of the Royal Pier, along with your snail.
Spring is a spiral spring, a metal strip rolled spirally in a keg, Pier tends to descompactarse, and is this pressure which becomes movers through a shaft. But the force varies, being much greater when the dock is fully wound, and it is losing pressure as it unwinds. So is imperative, the snail.
Keg where the pier is housed is joined to the snail (gut) cord or chain (later), when the mainspring is fully tensioned, cord pulls from the narrow end of the snail. To March the clock and “spent the rope” (Pier relaxes) lace goes racing snail to Skipjack. To compensate for the relaxation of the tension of the mainspring, the spiral that describes the cord on the snail increases in diameter.
So it gets the force delivered to clock gears to remain constant despite changing the tension of the mainspring. EXHAUST and regulator: There are two parts that depend on each other. They maintain constant rhythm of the clock (prevents the speed decrease or increase). It is the essential mechanism of control in all types of mechanical watches.
-The escape of palette and rocker: was invented in Italy between the 13th and 14th centuries, it is not known by whom. It is called escapement palette and rocker or Catherine wheel and foliot escapement.
The escape mechanism is formed by:
-an escape wheel (vane, Crown or catalina, gives the same)
– and a regulator of this (rocker or foliot).
The Catherine wheel serration (pallets) is moved by a weight-driven gear train (not confused with weight drawn in the figure.
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The clock is produced in two versions:
-OJ NOMON: 80 cm. in diameter.
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It’s the weight which drives the clock, the driving force), the rotation of the Crown is obstructed by two paddles situated on a vertical axis (the tree), which has on top a rocker or foliot (Controller).
When the upper pallet stops the rotation of the Crown (producing a “tic”) locking tooth of the wheel gradually pushes the paddle until it is free and escapes. The palette is released top has spun the tree, and it is then when the bottom palette braking the wheel lock with another tooth (which makes a “tac”), same as the other, this tooth pushes the blade spinning tree so that returns to be in the same position as at the beginning of the explanation. This “tick-tock” that lasts until the rope ends is the pace of the clock and its speed.
The escape of Catherine wheel or palette (with or without the tree, the regulator is replaced by others) has been the most commonly used escape throughout the history of watchmaking, but created new exhaust wheel catalina was commonly used until the 19th century and even in this.
Mixed wall clock NOMON is the result of the merger of two characteristic nomon forms: merlin and rodon.
Pendulum regulator which replaced to the rocker. In mid-17TH-century pendulum discovery brought a breakthrough in the measurement of time, no doubt its inventor was Christian Huygens Swiss mathematician, intellectual heir of the physicist and astronomer Galileo Galilei who discovered that the length of the pendulum, and not the extent of rolling is what determines the duration of the movement, Galileo to be time was based on studies of Leonardo da Vinci that observing the movement of a lamp in one Church, he realized that rolling lasted always the same time, whether the impulse was very large as if not. Christian Huygens decided to apply these theories, and with the help of the Dutch watchmaker Salomon Coster, based on sketches of pendulum clock that had devised galileo, built first pendulum clock in 1656 Christmas. Huygens had created one of the most important inventions in the history of watchmaking. Towards the 1666 French and English made their own versions of this new machinery, produced initially in the Hague.
The new regulator, had to “adjust” to a wheel of exhaust which continued unchanged, the Catherine wheel, with minor modifications. With tree impulse had been given only by weight, and the tree kept pace, quite inaccurately, watches used to delay about half an hour daily.
With the pendulum, the momentum is undoubtedly also due to weight, but the pendulum has already itself a rhythm, so that lock and unlock blades, will happen with much greater precision.
Variations were reduced to one minute per week (approximately).
They were other escapes, for different types of clocks, which brought increasingly greater and greater precision.
-The escape of Looper:
It appeared to the 1670, invention of William Clement, London watchmaker, who was inspired by studies of Robert Hook (biologist, astronomer…) It is a device resembling in shape the anchor (or anchor) a ship.
The swing of the pendulum, rocking the anchor in such a way that it locks and then unlocks each of the teeth of the escape wheel, which in turn allows the wheel to rotate a precise angle, unlike the escape of palette used in the first clocks pendulum, Looper exhaust leaves the pendulum to explore a particular arc smaller. (pendulum)
This invention made possible the use of a pendulum (pendulum real) longer, beating seconds, because the arc travelled by the pendulum is smallest. Created a new design of clocks: wall clocks or long box (with pendulum real) which began to prevail amongst the English styles.
-Steering wheel with coil spring: in 1675, Huygens scored another important finding, steering wheel with coil spring. It is a regulator.
Axiom n wall clock is the basis of the concept of nomon clock.
(This is modern. With rotating screw for achieving an excellent balance)
As well as gravity control oscillating rolling pendulum, this spring (which is not the drive) regulates the rotating oscillation of a flywheel (seems to levitate, fly). The creation of this regulator was the invention of the portable clocks. If we use a watch: the drive spring and its snail (are not necessary weights), steering wheel (not necessary the pendulum), got a clock that can be transported without any fear.
The accuracy of clocks with this mechanism was only a daily minute.
-Cylinder exhaust: is the most commonly used with the flyers escape. It is transmitted to the steering wheel impulses in both directions. It was invented by George Graham around 1726 (for pocket watches or laptops equipped with steering wheel), was instead of the escape of Looper.
A cylinder, which replaces to the steering wheel axis, has a notch that allows that the triangular head of a very special escape wheel teeth to print him an alternate Rotary movements, by acting on the walls
concave or convex of the same, engendering the movement as they glide through the edges of the cylinder.
But steering wheel cylinder (exhaust) escape not confuse with steering wheel with spring coil (regulator), since the exhaust and the regulator complement and promote each other, keeping the pace of the clock, two steering wheels are on the clock, the one is not one evolution of the other.
The escape of cylinder (with wheel) is an evolution of the escape of Looper.
-Free anchor escape:
It is an adaptation of the escape of Looper. It was devised by the English Thomas Mudge, initially it was not very popular and is due to the Swiss Watchmakers its improvement and further development in the mid-19th century. This is the hub of the steering wheel (which is not drawn)
The impulse received from the escape wheel is transmitted through the opposite end of the Looper, which has forked, behind the wheel.
Watch merlin NOMON n
The elegance of the merlin clock is the lightness of its elements.
The fork and its DART Act on the parts placed in the axis of the steering wheel (saucer with notch and plug) transmitting the impulse of exhaust leaving free steering wheel wheel a their oscillations.
-Escape from anchor at rest:
The escape of anchor was perfected to prevent Kickback, by George Graham and Thomas Tompion in England in the 18th century.
Clocks whose controller was the pendulum, (mostly wall), for both watches whose controller was the steering wheel with spring coil (laptops, wrist watches), in the latter part is called escape free anchor at rest.
The anchor teeth have a notch, which makes having a very pointed end. The anchor is symmetrical semicircle-shaped or what is the same quadrant.
Thus the wheel, does not back up, only stops and moves. The drawing is a free static anchor escapement, because at the top of the anchor has a circle which is what turns into the notches in the shaft of the steering wheel.
The anchor escape at rest, was used primarily for precision clocks. Currently almost all mechanical watches are equipped with escape free anchor, with or without recoil.
They are the entire gears (wheels, pinions, axles,…) that transmit the movement. Two mechanisms must be distinguished if a clock striking, because the mechanism that gives the running clock, is almost independent of the clock mechanism, they are only in contact because the bells have to while the hours.
In the medieval clocks chime clock bearing consisted of seven wheels: two-wheel mobile transmitting the driving force and the movement to the following bodies, a small wheel gave the movement to a mobile system of fixation (the sphere) element and four-wheel triggering chime system. Therefore if the clock didn’t chime, it consisted of so only three wheels, and their corresponding pinions.
The medieval principle of three-wheel bearing was modified with the passage of time, and we were adding wheels, especially watches very refined, equipped with devices of the time, astronomical measures for example, or in the case of watches with automatons, where there should be an auxiliary mechanism of the movement of these also related to the main bearing of the clock as the striking mechanism, that should be activated to be the time.
Pointer NOMON is a mantel clock with great personality.
The composition of its inclined lines give it character and differentiate it.
Later, adopted from 17TH-century five-wheel system: a mobile wheel attached to the cylinder of the engine body, by means of a toothed wheel (Pier and snail), the escape wheel and two-wheel connected to the system of fixing (the sphere) indicating the minutes and seconds.
The movement was transmitted (from one wheel to another) thanks to the pine nuts located on shafts. Since then, the number of wheels increased to increase the precision and watches evolved in ways very different according to the places, and were slowly adding different discoveries that were doing, were happening in a very changing the number of wheels and elements that make up the mechanism.
It is the face of the watch, which visually indicates the passage of time in very different ways. The quadrants of the first watches bearing, from the 14th century had a very characteristic form.
It was a white disk spinning under a fixed needle.
Initially watches only had a needle, a single hand, indicating the time, his precision left much to be desired.
It has tended increasingly to avoid numbering replaced by signs or small antlers which improve the symmetry of the sphere. Three types of signs in the areas: those that have symbols images, or simply lines. The ones with numbers. And that lack of indications or references and only needles which indicate the place where he would be housed the number, these pretty views lately.
Roman numerals were traditionally used to signal the hour and quarter hour, while our modern numbering of Arabic characters was used to designate the minutes (if it had planned), date, lunar phases and the greater part of the astronomical information and calendar.
Arabic numerals were typically in areas equipped with alarm clock.
The days of the week were often represented by deities of which took the name or its symbol. Similarly, the months were also represented, often by their zodiac signs. And watches had a sphere but several, with different indications. From 1680, they supplied the areas of minuteras, concentric needle clockwise of the hours. And as it was advancing the precision the segunderas were introduced.
Of course clocks manufactured in other countries or that they would be exported, used other methods, such as Islamic numbers or symbols, Chinese and Japanese.
Watches are contents boxes that protect its mechanisms. Along with the spheres are
elements, which although functional, have above all a decorative role. Taking the footprint
art of its creator, or creators and also reflecting the currents of the time. In pocket watches
the boxes are metal (gold, silver, brass…), and in the wall usually wood.
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The warmth of the wood. care and attention to detail
(CHIME DEVICE NOMON):
The mechanism that produces sounds that warn of the passage of time. As I have already said, the Bell shooting is different from watch bearing, even though they are connected. Nearly all mechanical watches are constructed so that a wheel turns a complete hourly: easier, place a PIN in such wheel to throw a lever which, in turn, release the chime mechanism and put it into operation, making a hammer to hit a campaign.
The simplest system was used in the 16th century. This formed by a bearing and autonomous weights, different from the principal. The plug located on the hour wheel lifted a lever hitting a hammer, once every hour. But this system was modified to match the number of hits at the announced time.
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In all of these systems strike filming speed must be controlled in the same way that the turning of the clock, otherwise would continue to accelerate and the final Bell would not distinguish from the others. In other words, the clock needs a regulator. Initially, makers tended to make use of an escape, as they usually do for the filming of the clock, but then realized that the venteroles were also effective, since it wasn’t really important that the distance between the chimes would be exactly equal.
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And above all the venterotes were quieter than escapes (ticking). It is a kind of fan, which rotates very quickly, spending part of the driving force that was intended to chime so that this does not accelerate both.
From 1550, it is not common to find a shooting of striking mechanism controlled by an escape, although exceptions are.
-Wheel contadera: It is the most common system that remains to the present day.
It consists of a disc with notches or grooves incised on its rim, progressively separated in proportion to the number of chimes. A chime clock based on the usual system of 12 o’clock, gives us a total of 78 bells that have to play in the space of 12 hours. When the contadera tour slowly while the clock chimes, a lever controls its progress; This control lever mechanism allows touch until the lever is locked into a recess, causing the stop the clock until the next time.
Contadera wheel can also be used to set both the hours and the quarters and in some Italian clocks, chimes, it is prepared in such a way that you can put in operation two or more hammers in order to distinguish the hours of the quarters, the diversity of tones.
This type of chime had defects, one of them was that by that small inaccuracy of the venterol, could have ever a translocation between the number of hits and time which marked needle, it could be remedied to correcting the needle on the dial of a clock inside, but it was rather more complicated in tower clocks.
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The combination of noble materials and unique design make it a different clock.
Contadera wheel not has never been abandoned and can still be found in tower clocks and the domestic playing quarters.
-Surrerwek: this German term is not easy to translate = chime of organ pipes. Most of the clocks, which have this system date back to the second half of the 18th century, and are Italian or southern Germany.
The canon or the hour wheel turning every twelve hours, is equipped with a cam that controls the position of the tail of hammer on the prescription-pin serial (resemble tubes of a body, hence the name) that are fixed on the wheel of time.
Farther down is the tail of the hammer, the greater the number of able to trigger pins.
-Rake or serreta and snail: is the third and most effective striking system.
This invention was always attributed to Edward Barlow in 1676, but now, it seems that such a mechanism was already used in the Netherlands before. Also it is claimed that this discovery was made by Daniel Quare, a watchmaker
The snail, is mounted on wheel barrel, so the number of chimes match always and without fail the hour indicated. This snail-shaped cam, has twelve cups grooves. Rake or serreta is fitted with a lever with which is inserted into the notch right before every hour.
This sets the number of teeth of a rake who will be swept away by a small mobile tooth. Each tooth rake corresponds to a hammer blow.
Little by little, the machines performed solo work only had to invent them, and were replacing human actions by mechanisms, was no longer needed someone to touch the bells, or to do calculations to get the lunar distance and so time, although the clock machine, had a run unknown (for the majority) did a job that previously had